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激励机制与农村基本公共服务供给研究

Study on Incentive Mechanism and the Provision of Rural Basic Public Services

刘成奎[著]

农村 社会服务 研究 中国

2015-12-01

978-7-5161-6003-9

208

10

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  • 内容简介
  • 书籍目录
  • 作者简介
  • 参考文献
内容简介

农村基本公共服务均等化是近年来我国受关注度非常高的问题之一,对此问题众多学者们开展了富有成效的研究并提出了有价值的对策建议,在实践中也极大地促进了农村基本公共服务均等化水平的提高。
不可否认的是,我国农村基本公共服务均等化远未达到政策目标的要求,尤其令人惊讶的是,在中国的一些经济发达地区,农村基本公共服务均等化水平并没有与其经济地位相对称。由此引致一些问题:经济发展了,为什么农村居民无法相应地享受其成果?传统理论对农村基本公共服务供给不足问题侧重于经济因素的解释是否失效?晋升激励是否为官员决策的唯一制约因素?政府官员的收益范围是否只能狭隘地界定为货币收益与晋升收益,能否拓宽,如何拓宽?对上述问题的回答,构成了本书的主要内容。
在中国长期的城乡二元分割体制的深刻背景下,再加上媒体在公共信息传播上的城市偏好,固化了内含经济人特性的政府官员在基本公共服务均等化供给决策上的城市偏向,这是一种合乎逻辑的结果。
事实上,政府官员的激励机制是引致并固化政府官员公共决策中城市偏好的直接的、隐性的影响因素。政府官员的激励机制包括经济激励或财政分权激励、政治激励或晋升激励、心理自豪感激励等。财政分权激励有助于增强政府官员可支配资源的能力,从而有助于提高农村基本公共服务供给。晋升激励对政府官员的激励效应非常明显,在GDP晋升导向下更容易引发公共决策中的城市偏好,从而不利于提高农村基本公共服务供给。而心理自豪感激励对农村基本公共服务供给的影响则受官员心理自豪感类型的影响,存在真实自豪感的官员会接受较低的金钱性收益、晋升收益与声望收益并努力工作,其自豪感收益是内生的,从而有助于促进农村基本公共服务;而存在自负自豪感的官员重点追求晋升收益与声望收益,其自豪感收益是外生的,从而不利于促进农村基本公共服务供给。
通过2004—2011年中国的宏观数据分析发现,包括农村社会保障、农村卫生医疗、农村义务教育、农村基础设施等在内的农村基本公共服务供给指数总体上趋于上升,且与政府政策推动直接相关;各省份内部农村基本公共服务供给水平差异较大,但是与经济增长水平无直接关系,其中政府的城市偏好、媒体信息的制约作用明显。
而针对湖北新农村建设农民满意度情况的微观调研数据研究表明,农民的总体满意度较高,但是在基本公共服务供给上,政府供给与农民需求存在结构上的错位;同时,农民个体的教育水平、收入水平、外出务工经历、性别、年龄等差异也极大地影响其满意度。
在对上述问题的回答中,作者尝试着从一些新的角度来开展针对性的理论研究,如在经济激励、政治激励外引入了心理自豪感激励,完善了政府官员的激励机制体系,也强化了对政府官员行为的现实解释力;构建并计算了衡量基本公共服务均等化的省际、省内的农村基本公共服务供给指数;利用宏观数据构建并计算了衡量新媒体发展的省际的网络信息指数;通过微观调研数据构建并计算了湖北省新农村建设农民满意度,并做了详细的分析。
本书在现有研究的基础上,做了一定的新尝试,得到了一些有意义的研究结论并提出了政策建议,为实现农村基本公共服务均等化问题做出了有益的探索。
财政部财政科学研究所副所长
2015年1月于北京新知大厦

The equalization of basic rural public services is one of the issues that have attracted very much attention in China in recent years, and many scholars have carried out fruitful research on this issue and put forward valuable countermeasures and suggestions, which has also greatly promoted the improvement of the equalization level of rural basic public services in practice. It is undeniable that the equalization of basic rural public services in China is far from meeting the requirements of policy goals, and it is particularly surprising that in some economically developed areas of China, the level of equalization of rural basic public services is not commensurate with their economic status. This raises the question: why are rural residents unable to enjoy the fruits of economic development accordingly? Is the traditional theory of focusing on economic factors to explain the insufficient supply of basic public services in rural areas? Are promotion incentives the only constraint to officials' decision-making? Can the scope of benefits for government officials only be narrowly defined as monetary gains and promotion gains, can it be broadened, and how? The answers to these questions form the main content of this book. In the profound context of China's long-standing urban-rural dualistic system, coupled with the media's urban preference for public information dissemination, it is a logical consequence to solidify the urban bias of government officials with inherent economic characteristics in decision-making on the equalization of basic public services. In fact, the incentive mechanism of government officials is a direct and implicit influencing factor that leads to and solidifies the preferences of cities in public decision-making by government officials. The incentive mechanism of government officials includes economic incentives or financial decentralization incentives, political incentives or promotion incentives, psychological pride incentives, etc. Fiscal decentralization incentives help increase the ability of government officials to dispose of resources, thereby helping to increase the provision of basic public services in rural areas. The incentive effect of promotion incentives on government officials is very obvious, and it is easier to trigger urban preference in public decision-making under the guidance of GDP promotion, which is not conducive to improving the supply of basic public services in rural areas. The influence of psychological pride incentive on the provision of basic public services in rural areas is affected by the type of psychological pride of officials, and officials with real pride will accept lower monetary benefits, promotion benefits and prestige benefits and work hard, and their pride benefits are endogenous, thus helping to promote basic rural public services; Officials with a sense of pride focus on promotion gains and prestige gains, and their pride gains are exogenous, which is not conducive to promoting the supply of basic public services in rural areas. Through the macro data analysis of China from 2004 to 2011, it is found that the rural basic public service supply index, including rural social security, rural health care, rural compulsory education, rural infrastructure, etc., tends to rise on the whole, and is directly related to the promotion of government policies. The level of rural basic public service supply varies greatly among provinces, but it is not directly related to the level of economic growth, among which the government's urban preference and media information constraints play an obvious role. Micro-survey data on the satisfaction of farmers in Hubei New Rural Construction show that the overall satisfaction of farmers is high, but there is a structural mismatch between government supply and farmers' demand in the supply of basic public services. At the same time, differences in individual farmers' education level, income level, migrant experience, gender, age and other differences also greatly affect their satisfaction. In the answer to the above questions, the author tries to carry out targeted theoretical research from some new angles, such as introducing psychological pride incentives in addition to economic incentives and political incentives, improving the incentive mechanism system of government officials, and strengthening the practical explanatory power of government officials' behavior; The inter-provincial and intra-provincial rural basic public service supply index, which measures the equalization of basic public services, was constructed and calculated. Using macro data, the interprovincial network information index to measure the development of new media was constructed and calculated. Through the micro-survey data, the satisfaction of farmers in the new rural construction in Hubei Province was constructed and calculated, and a detailed analysis was made. On the basis of existing research, this book has made certain new attempts, obtained some meaningful research conclusions and put forward policy suggestions, and made useful explorations to realize the equalization of rural basic public services. Deputy Director of the Institute of Fiscal Science of the Ministry of Finance at Xinzhi Building, Beijing, January 2015(AI翻译)

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