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肇論新疏

宗教学 佛教

佛經 《肇論》 注釋

2020-10-01

978-7-5203-7255-8

214

11

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  • 内容简介
  • 书籍目录
  • 作者简介
内容简介

中外哲學典籍大全的編纂,是一項既有時代價值又有歷史意義的重大工程。
中華民族經過了近一百八十年的艱苦奮鬥,迎來了中國近代以來最好的發展時期,迎來了奮力實現中華民族偉大復興的時期。中華民族衹有總結古今中外的一切思想成就,才能並肩世界歷史發展的大勢。爲此,我們須編纂一部匯集中外古今哲學典籍的經典集成,爲中華民族的偉大復興、爲人類命運共同體的建設、爲人類社會的進步,提供哲學思想的精粹。
哲學是思想的花朵,文明的靈魂,精神的王冠。一個國家、民族,要興旺發達,擁有光明的未來,就必須擁有精深的理論思維,擁有自己的哲學。哲學是推動社會變革和發展的理論力量,是激發人的精神砥石。哲學解放思維,净化心靈,照亮前行的道路。偉大的時代需要精邃的哲學。
一 哲學是智慧之學
哲學是什麽?這既是一個古老的問題,又是哲學永恒的話題。追問哲學是什麽,本身就是 「哲學」問題。從哲學成爲思維的那一天起,哲學家們就在不停追問中發展、豐富哲學的篇章,給出一個又一個答案。每個時代的哲學家對這個問題都有自己的詮釋。哲學是什麽,是懸疑在人類智慧面前的永恒之問,這正是哲學之爲哲學的基本特點。
哲學是全部世界的觀念形態,精神本質。人類面臨的共同問題,是哲學研究的根本對象。本體論、認識論、世界觀、人生觀、價值觀、實踐論、方法論等,仍是哲學的基本問題和生命力所在!哲學研究的是世界萬物的根本性、本質性問題。人們可以給哲學做出許多具體定義,但我們可以嘗試用 「遮詮」的方式描述哲學的一些特點,從而使人們加深對何爲哲學的認識。
哲學不是玄虚之觀。哲學來自人類實踐,關乎人生。哲學對現實存在的一切追根究底、「打破砂鍋問到底」。它不僅是問 「是什麽」(being),而且主要是追問 「爲什麽」(why),特别是追問 「爲什麽的爲什麽」。它關注整個宇宙,關注整個人類的命運,關注人生。它關心柴米油鹽
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醋茶和人的生命的關係,關心人工智能對人類社會的挑戰。哲學是對一切實踐經驗的理論升華,它關心具體現象背後的根據,關心人類如何會更好。
哲學是在根本層面上追問自然、社會和人本身,以徹底的態度反思已有的觀念和認識,從價值理想出發把握生活的目標和歷史的趨勢,展示了人類理性思維的高度,凝結了民族進步的智慧,寄託了人們熱愛光明、追求真善美的情懷。道不遠人,人能弘道。哲學是把握世界、洞悉未來的學問,是思想解放、自由的大門!
古希臘的哲學家們被稱爲「望天者」,亞里士多德在形而上學一书中説,「最初人們通過好奇—驚讚來做哲學」。如果説知識源於好奇的話,那麽産生哲學的好奇心,必須是大好奇心。這種 「大好奇心」衹爲一件 「大事因緣」而來,所謂大事,就是天地之間一切事物的 「爲什麽」。哲學精神,是 「家事、國事、天下事,事事要問」,是一種永遠追問的精神。
哲學不衹是思維。哲學將思維本身作爲自己的研究對象,對思想本身進行反思。哲學不是一般的知識體系,而是把知識概念作爲研究的對象,追問 「什麽才是知識的真正來源和根據」。哲學的 「非對象性」的思想方式,不是 「純形式」的推論原則,而有其 「非對象性」之對象。哲學之對象乃是不斷追求真理,是一個理論與實踐兼而有之的過程,是認識的精粹。哲學追求真理的過程本身就顯現了哲學的本質。天地之浩瀚,變化之奥妙,正是哲思的玄妙之處。
哲學不是宣示絶對性的教義教條,哲學反對一切形式的絶對。哲學解放束縛,意味著從一切思想教條中解放人類自身。哲學給了我們徹底反思過去的思想自由,給了我們深刻洞察未來的思想能力。哲學就是解放之學,是聖火和利劍。
哲學不是一般的知識。哲學追求 「大智慧」。佛教講 「轉識成智」,識與智相當於知識與哲學的關係。一般知識是依據於具體認識對象而來的、有所依有所待的 「識」,而哲學則是超越於具體對象之上的 「智」。
公元前六世紀,中國的老子説,「大方無隅,大器晚成,大音希聲,大象無形,道隱無名。夫唯道,善貸且成」。又説,「反者道之動,弱者道之用。天下萬物生於有,有生於無」。對道的追求就是對有之爲有、無形無名的探究,就是對天地何以如此的探究。這種追求,使得哲學具有了天地之大用,具有了超越有形有名之有限經驗的大智慧。這種大智慧、大用途,超越一切限制的籬笆,達到趨向無限的解放能力。
哲學不是經驗科學,但又與經驗有聯繫。哲學從其作爲學問誕生起,就包含於科學形態之中,是以科學形態出現的。哲學是以理性的方式、概念的方式、論证的方式來思考宇宙人生的根本問題。在亞里士多德那裏,凡是研究實體(ousia)的學問,都叫作 「哲學」。而 「第一實體」則是存在者中的 「第一個」。研究第一實體的學問稱爲 「神學」,也就是「形而上學」,這正是後世所謂 「哲學」。一般意義上的科學正是從 「哲學」最初的意義上贏得自己最原初的規定性的。哲學雖然不是經驗科學,却爲科學劃定了意義的範圍、指明了方向。哲學最後必定指向宇宙人生的根本問題,大科學家的工作在深層意義上總是具有哲學的意味,牛頓和愛因斯坦就是這樣的典範。
哲學不是自然科學,也不是文學藝術,但在自然科學的前頭,哲學的道路展現了;在文學藝術的山頂,哲學的天梯出現了。哲學不斷地激發人的探索和創造精神,使人在認識世界的過程中,不斷達到新境界,在改造世界中從必然王國到達自由王國。
哲學不斷從最根本的問題再次出發。哲學史在一定意義上就是不斷重構新的世界觀、認識人類自身的歷史。哲學的歷史呈現,正是對哲學的創造本性的最好説明。哲學史上每一位哲學家對根本問題的思考,都在爲哲學添加新思維、新向度,猶如爲天籟山上不斷增添一隻隻黄鸝翠鳥。
如果説哲學是哲學史的連續展現中所具有的統一性特徵,那麽這種 「一」是在 「多」個哲學的創造中實現的。如果説每一種哲學體系都追求一種體系性的 「一」的話,那麽每種 「一」的體系之間都存在着千絲相聯、多方組合的關係。這正是哲學史昭示於我們的哲學多樣性的意義。多樣性與統一性的依存關係,正是哲學尋求現象與本質、具體與普遍相統一的辯證之意義。
哲學的追求是人類精神的自然趨向,是精神自由的花朵。哲學是思想的自由,是自由的思想。
中國哲學,是中華民族五千年文明傳統中,最爲内在的、最爲深刻的、最爲持久的精神追求和價值觀表達。中國哲學已經化爲中國人的思維方式、生活態度、道德準則、人生追求、精神境界。中國人的科學技術、倫理道德,小家大國、中醫藥學、詩歌文學、繪畫書法、武術拳法、鄉規民俗,乃至日常生活也都浸潤着中國哲學的精神。華夏文化雖歷經磨難而能够透魄醒神,堅韌屹立,正是來自於中國哲學深邃的思維和創造力。
先秦時代,老子、孔子、莊子、孫子、韓非子等諸子之間的百家争鳴,就是哲學精神在中國的展現,是中國人思想解放的第一次大爆發。兩漢四百多年的思想和制度,是諸子百家思想在争鳴過程中大整合的結果。魏晋之際,玄學的發生,則是儒道冲破各自藩籬,彼此互動互補的結果,形成了儒家獨尊的態勢。隋唐三百年,佛教深入中國文化,又一次帶來了思想的大融合和大解放,禪宗的形成就是這一融合和解放的結果。兩宋三百多年,中國哲學迎來了第三次大解放。儒釋道三教之間的互潤互持日趨深入,朱熹的理學和陸象山的心學,就是這一思想潮流的哲學結晶。
與古希臘哲學强調沉思和理論建構不同,中國哲學的旨趣在於實踐人文關懷,它更關注實踐的義理性意義。中國哲學當中,知與行從未分離,中國哲學有着深厚的實踐觀點和生活觀點,倫理道德觀是中國人的貢獻。馬克思説,「全部社會生活在本質上是實踐的」,實踐的觀點、生活的觀點也正是馬克思主義認識論的基本觀點。這種哲學上的契合性,正是馬克思主義能够在中國扎根並不斷中國化的哲學原因。
「實事求是」是中國的一句古話。今天已成爲深遂的哲理,成爲中國人的思維方式和行爲基準。實事求是就是解放思想,解放思想就是實事求是。實事求是毛澤東思想的精髓,是改革開放的基石。只有解放思想才能實事求是。實事求是就是中國人始終堅持的哲學思想。實事求是就是依靠自己,走自己的道路,反對一切絶對觀念。所謂中國化就是一切從中國實際出發,一切理論必須符合中國實際。
二 哲學的多樣性
實踐是人的存在形式,是哲學之母。實踐是思維的動力、源泉、價值、標準。人們認識世界、探索規律的根本目的是改造世界,完善自己。哲學問題的提出和回答,都離不開實踐。馬克思有句名言:「哲學家們只是用不同的方式解釋世界,而問題在於改變世界!」理論只有成爲人的精神智慧,才能成爲改變世界的力量。
哲學關心人類命運。時代的哲學,必定關心時代的命運。對時代命運的關心就是對人類實踐和命運的關心。人在實踐中産生的一切都具有現實性。哲學的實踐性必定帶來哲學的現實性。哲學的現實性就是强調人在不斷回答實踐中各種問題時應該具有的態度。
哲學作爲一門科學是現實的。哲學是一門回答並解釋現實的學問,哲學是人們聯繫實際、面對現實的思想。可以説哲學是現實的最本質的理論,也是本質的最現實的理論。哲學始終追問現實的發展和變化。哲學存在於實踐中,也必定在現實中發展。哲學的現實性要求我們直面實踐本身。
哲學不是簡單跟在實踐後面,成爲當下實踐的 「奴僕」,而是以特有的深邃方式,關注着實踐的發展,提升人的實踐水平,爲社會實踐提供理論支撑。從直接的、急功近利的要求出發來理解和從事哲學,無異於向哲學提出它本身不可能完成的任務。哲學是深沉的反思,厚重的智慧,事物的抽象,理論的把握。哲學是人類把握世界最深邃的理論思維。
哲學是立足人的學問,是人用於理解世界、把握世界、改造世界的智慧之學。「民之所好,好之,民之所惠,惠之。」哲學的目的是爲了人。用哲學理解外在的世界,理解人本身,也是爲了用哲學改造世界、改造人。哲學研究無禁區,無終無界,與宇宙同在,與人類同在。
存在是多樣的、發展是多樣的,這是客觀世界的必然。宇宙萬物本身是多樣的存在,多樣的變化。歷史表明,每一民族的文化都有其獨特的價值。文化的多樣性是自然律,是動力,是生命力。各民族文化之間的相互借鑒,補充浸染,共同推動著人類社會的發展和繁榮,這是規律。對象的多樣性、複雜性,决定了哲學的多樣性;即使對同一事物,人們也會産生不同的哲學認識,形成不同的哲學派别。哲學觀點、思潮、流派及其表現形式上的區别,來自於哲學的時代性、地域性和民族性的差异。世界哲學是不同民族的哲學的薈萃,如中國哲學、西方哲學、阿拉伯哲學等。多樣性構成了世界,百花齊放形成了花園。不同的民族會有不同風格的哲學。恰恰是哲學的民族性,使不同的哲學都可以在世界舞臺上演繹出各種 「戲劇」。即使有類似的哲學觀點,在實踐中的表達和運用也會各有特色。
人類的實踐是多方面的,具有多樣性、發展性,大體可以分爲:改造自然界的實踐,改造人類社會的實踐,完善人本身的實踐,提升人的精神世界的精神活動。人是實踐中的人,實踐是人的生命的第一屬性。實踐的社會性决定了哲學的社會性,哲學不是脱離社會現實生活的某種遐想,而是社會現實生活的觀念形態,是文明進步的重要標誌,是人的發展水平的重要維度。哲學的發展狀况,反映着一個社會人的理性成熟程度,反映著這個社會的文明程度。
哲學史實質上是自然史、社會史、人的發展史和人類思維史的總結和概括。自然界是多樣的,社會是多樣的,人類思維是多樣的。所謂哲學的多樣性,就是哲學基本觀念、理論學説、方法的異同,是哲學思維方式上的多姿多彩。哲學的多樣性是哲學的常態,是哲學進步、發展和繁榮的標誌。哲學是人的哲學,哲學是人對事物的自覺,是人對外界和自我認識的學問,也是人把握世界和自我的學問。哲學的多樣性,是哲學的常態和必然,是哲學發展和繁榮的内在動力。一般是普遍性,特色也是普遍性。從單一性到多樣性,從簡單性到複雜性,是哲學思維的一大變革。用一種哲學話語和方法否定另一種哲學話語和方法,這本身就不是哲學的態度。
多樣性並不否定共同性、統一性、普遍性。物質和精神,存在和意識,一切事物都是在運動、變化中的,是哲學的基本問題,也是我們的基本哲學觀點!
當今的世界如此紛繁複雜,哲學多樣性就是世界多樣性的反映。哲學是以觀念形態表現出的現實世界。哲學的多樣性,就是文明多樣性和人類歷史發展多樣性的表達。多樣性是宇宙之道。
哲學的實踐性、多樣性,還體現在哲學的時代性上。哲學總是特定時代精神的精華,是一定歷史條件下人的反思活動的理論形態。在不同的時代,哲學具有不同的内容和形式,哲學的多樣性,也是歷史時代多樣性的表達。哲學的多樣性也會讓我們能够更科學地理解不同歷史時代,更爲内在地理解歷史發展的道理。多樣性是歷史之道。
哲學之所以能發揮解放思想的作用,在於它始終關注實踐,關注現實的發展;在於它始終關注著科學技術的進步。哲學本身没有絶對空間,没有自在的世界,只能是客觀世界的映象,觀念形態。没有了現實性,哲學就遠離人,就離開了存在。哲學的實踐性,説到底是在説明哲學本質上是人的哲學,是人的思維,是爲了人的科學!哲學的實踐性、多樣性告訴我們,哲學必須百花齊放、百家争鳴。哲學的發展首先要解放自己,解放哲學,就是實現思維、觀念及範式的變革。人類發展也必須多塗並進,交流互鑒,共同繁榮。采百花之粉,才能釀天下之蜜。
三 哲學與當代中國
中國自古以來就有思辨的傳統,中國思想史上的百家争鳴就是哲學繁榮的史象。哲學是歷史發展的號角。中國思想文化的每一次大躍升,都是哲學解放的結果。中國古代賢哲的思想傳承至今,他們的智慧已浸入中國人的精神境界和生命情懷。
中國共産黨人歷來重視哲學,毛澤東在一九三八年,在抗日戰争最困難的條件下,在延安研究哲學,創作了實踐論和矛盾論,推動了中國革命的思想解放,成爲中國人民的精神力量。
中華民族的偉大復興必將迎來中國哲學的新發展。當代中國必須有自己的哲學,當代中國的哲學必須要從根本上講清楚中國道路的哲學道理。中華民族的偉大復興必須要有哲學的思維,必須要有不斷深入的反思。發展的道路,就是哲思的道路,文化的自信,就是哲學思維的自信。哲學是引領者,可謂永恒的 「北斗」,哲學是時代的 「火焰」,是時代最精緻最深刻的 「光芒」。從社會變革的意義上説,任何一次巨大的社會變革,總是以理論思維爲先導。理論的變革,總是以思想觀念的空前解放爲前提,而 「吹響」人類思想解放第一聲 「號角」的,往往就是代表時代精神精華的哲學。社會實踐對於哲學的需求可謂「迫不及待」,因爲哲學總是 「吹響」這個新時代的 「號角」。「吹響」中國改革開放之「號角」的,正是 「解放思想」「實踐是檢驗真理的唯一標準」「不改革死路一條」等哲學觀念。「吹響」新時代 「號角」的是 「中國夢」,「人民對美好生活的向往,就是我們奮鬥的目標」。發展是人類社會永恒的動力,變革是社會解放的永遠的課題,思想解放,解放思想是無盡的哲思。中國正走在理論和實踐的雙重探索之路上,搞探索没有哲學不成!
中國哲學的新發展,必須反映中國與世界最新的實踐成果,必須反映科學的最新成果,必須具有走向未來的思想力量。今天的中國人所面臨的歷史時代,是史無前例的。十三億人齊步邁向現代化,這是怎樣的一幅歷史畫卷!是何等壯麗、令人震撼!不僅中國歷史上亘古未有,在世界歷史上也從未有過。當今中國需要的哲學,是結合天道、地理、人德的哲學,是整合古今中西的哲學,只有這樣的哲學才是中華民族偉大復興的哲學。
當今中國需要的哲學,必須是適合中國的哲學。無論古今中外,再好的東西,也需要再吸收,再消化,必須要經過現代化和中國化,才能成爲今天中國自己的哲學。哲學是解放人的,哲學自身的發展也是一次思想解放,也是人的一个思維升華、羽化的過程。中國人的思想解放,總是隨著歷史不斷進行的。歷史有多長,思想解放的道路就有多長;發展進步是永恒的,思想解放也是永無止境的,思想解放就是哲學的解放。
習近平説,思想工作就是 「引導人們更加全面客觀地認識當代中國、看待外部世界」。這就需要我們確立一種 「知己知彼」的知識態度和理論立場,而哲學則是對文明價值核心最精練和最集中的深邃性表達,有助於我們認識中國、認識世界。立足中國、認識中國,需要我們審視我們走過的道路,立足中國、認識世界,需要我們觀察和借鑒世界歷史上的不同文化。中國 「獨特的文化傳統」、中國 「獨特的歷史命運」、中國 「獨特的基本國情」,「决定了我們必然要走適合自己特點的發展道路」。一切現實的,存在的社會制度,其形態都是具體的,都是特色的,都必須是符合本國實際的。抽象的制度,普世的制度是不存在的。同時,我們要全面客觀地 「看待外部世界」。研究古今中外的哲學,是中國認識世界、認識人類史,認識自己未來發展的必修課。今天中國的發展不僅要讀中國書,還要讀世界書。不僅要學習自然科學、社會科學的經典,更要學習哲學的經典。當前,中國正走在實現 「中國夢」的 「長征」路上,這也正是一條思想不斷解放的道路!要回答中國的問題,解釋中國的發展,首先需要哲學思維本身的解放。哲學的發展,就是哲學的解放,這是由哲學的實踐性、時代性所决定的。哲學無禁區、無疆界。哲學是關乎宇宙之精神,是關乎人類之思想。哲學將與宇宙、人類同在。
四 哲學典籍
中外哲學典籍大全的編纂,是要讓中國人能研究中外哲學經典,吸收人類精神思想的精華;是要提升我們的思維,讓中國人的思想更加理性、更加科學、更加智慧。
中國有盛世修典的傳統。中國古代有多部典籍類書(如「永樂大典」 「四庫全書」等),在新時代編纂中外哲學典籍大全,是我們的歷史使命,是民族復興的重大思想工程。
只有學習和借鑒人類精神思想的成就,才能實現我們自己的發展,走向未來。中外哲學典籍大全的編纂,就是在思維層面上,在智慧境界中,繼承自己的精神文明,學習世界優秀文化。這是我們的必修課。
不同文化之間的交流、合作和友誼,必須達到哲學層面上的相互認同和借鑒。哲學之間的對話和傾聽,才是從心到心的交流。中外哲學典籍大全的編纂,就是在搭建心心相通的橋樑。
我們編纂這套哲學典籍大全,一是中國哲學,整理中國歷史上的思想典籍,濃縮中國思想史上的精華;二是外國哲學,主要是西方哲學,吸收外來,借鑒人類發展的優秀哲學成果;三是馬克思主義哲學,展示馬克思主義哲學中國化的成就;四是中國近現代以來的哲學成果,特别是馬克思主義在中國的發展。
編纂這部典籍大全,是哲學界早有的心願,也是哲學界的一份奉獻。中外哲學典籍大全總結的是書本上的思想,是先哲們的思維,是前人的足迹。我們希望把它們奉獻給後來人,使他們能够站在前人肩膀上,站在歷史岸邊看待自己。
中外哲學典籍大全的編纂,是以 「知以藏往」的方式實現 「神以知來」;中外哲學典籍大全的編纂,是通過對中外哲學歷史的 「原始反終」,從人類共同面臨的根本大問題出發,在哲學生生不息的道路上,綵繪出人類文明進步的盛德大業!
發展的中國,既是一個政治、經濟大國,也是一個文化大國,也必將是一個哲學大國、思想王國。人類的精神文明成果是不分國界的,哲學的邊界是實踐,實踐的永恒性是哲學的永續綫性,打開胸懷擁抱人類文明成就,是一個民族和國家自强自立,始終伫立於人類文明潮頭的根本條件。
擁抱世界,擁抱未來,走向復興,構建中國人的世界觀、人生觀、價值觀、方法論,這是中國人的視野、情懷,也是中國哲學家的願望!
李鐵映
二〇一八年八月

The compilation of Chinese and foreign philosophical classics is a major project of both epochal value and historical significance. After nearly 180 years of arduous struggle, the Chinese nation ushered in the best period of development in modern times and a period of striving to realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Only by summing up all the ideological achievements of ancient and modern China and abroad can the Chinese nation shoulder the general trend of world historical development. To this end, we must compile a collection of classics of ancient and modern philosophical texts to provide the essence of philosophical thought for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, for the construction of a community of human destiny, and for the progress of human society. Philosophy is the flower of thought, the soul of civilization, the crown of spirit. If a country or nation wants to prosper and have a bright future, it must have profound theoretical thinking and its own philosophy. Philosophy is a theoretical force for social change and development, and a spiritual pillar that inspires people. Philosophy liberates the mind, purifies the mind, and illuminates the way forward. Great times require brilliant philosophy. I. Philosophy is the science of wisdom, what is philosophy? This is both an age-old question and a philosophical eternal topic. Asking what philosophy is is itself a matter of "philosophy." From the day philosophy became thought, philosophers have been constantly pursuing philosophical chapters, giving one answer after another. Philosophers of every age have their own interpretations of this question. What is philosophy is the eternal question of doubt before human intelligence, and this is the basic characteristic of philosophy as philosophy. Philosophy is the conceptual form, the spiritual essence of the whole world. The common problems facing mankind are the fundamental objects of philosophical research. Ontology, epistemology, world view, outlook on life, values, practice, methodology, etc., are still the basic problems and vitality of philosophy! Philosophy studies the fundamental and essential problems of all things in the world. People can give many specific definitions of philosophy, but we can try to describe some characteristics of philosophy in a "veiled" way, so as to deepen people's understanding of what philosophy is. Philosophy is not a mysterious view. Philosophy comes from human practice and is about life. Philosophy investigates everything that exists in reality, "breaking the cauldron and asking the end." It is not only asking "being," but primarily "why," and especially "why." It is concerned with the entire universe, with the destiny of the entire human race, with the life of life. It cares about firewood, rice, oil and saltThe relationship between vinegar tea and human life, concerned about the challenges of artificial intelligence to human society. Philosophy is the theoretical sublimation of all practical experience, it is concerned with the basis behind concrete phenomena, with how human beings can be better. Philosophy is to question nature, society and man itself at a fundamental level, reflect on existing concepts and understandings with a thorough attitude, grasp the goals of life and historical trends from the value ideal, show the height of human rational thinking, condense the wisdom of national progress, and place people's love of light and pursuit of truth, goodness and beauty. The Tao is not far away, and people can spread the Tao. Philosophy is the study of grasping the world and gaining insight into the future, and it is the door to ideological emancipation and freedom! The ancient Greek philosophers were called "the spectators," and Aristotle said in his book Metaphysics, "Initially people did philosophy through curiosity and amazement." If knowledge comes from curiosity, then philosophical curiosity must be great curiosity. This "great curiosity" comes from a "great cause," which is the "why" of everything between heaven and earth. The philosophical spirit is "family affairs, state affairs, world affairs, and everything must be asked" and is a spirit of eternal inquiry. Philosophy is not just thinking. Philosophy takes the mind itself as its object of study, reflecting on the thought itself. Philosophy is not an ordinary system of knowledge, but takes the concept of knowledge as the object of study, asking "what is the true source and basis of knowledge". The philosophical "non-object" way of thinking is not a "purely formal" principle of inference, but has its "non-object" object. The object of philosophy is the constant pursuit of truth, a process of both theory and practice, and the essence of understanding. The very process of philosophy in its pursuit of truth reveals the essence of philosophy. The vastness of heaven and earth, the mystery of change, is the mystery of philosophy. Philosophy is not a doctrinal dogma that declares opposition, philosophy opposes all forms of opposition. Philosophical liberation means the liberation of man himself from all ideological dogmas. Philosophy gives us the freedom to think thoroughly about the past and the ability to think deeply into the future. Philosophy is the science of liberation, the flame and the sword. Philosophy is not general knowledge. Philosophy pursues "great wisdom." Buddhism talks about "turning into wisdom," and knowledge and wisdom are equivalent to the relationship between knowledge and philosophy. General knowledge is "knowledge" based on specific objects of knowledge, while philosophy is "wisdom" that transcends specific objects. In the sixth century B.C., China's Lao Tzu said, "Generous, late bloomer, loud voice, elephant invisible, and nameless." Husbands are only good and good." He also said, "The movement of the opposite way, the use of the weak way." All things under heaven are born of something and something is born of nothing." The pursuit of the Tao is the search for what is and what is formless and nameless, that is, the inquiry into why heaven and earth are so. This pursuit has given philosophy the great utility of heaven and earth, and great wisdom beyond the limited experience of the tangible and famous. This kind of great wisdom and great use transcends the fence of all limitations and reaches the infinite ability of liberation. Philosophy is not an empirical science, but it is connected to experience. From the birth of philosophy as a scientific question, it has been contained in the form of science, and it has appeared in the form of science. Philosophy thinks about the fundamental questions of life in the universe in a rational way, a conceptual way, and an argumentative way. In Aristotle, the study of entities (ousia) is called "philosophy." The "first entity" is the "first" of beings. The study of the first entity is called "theology," or "metaphysics," which is what later generations called "philosophy." Science in the general sense wins its original prescriptiveness precisely in the original sense of "philosophy." Although philosophy is not an empirical science, it has defined the scope of meaning and pointed out the direction for science. Philosophy must ultimately point to the fundamental problems of life in the universe, and the work of great scientists is always philosophical in its deep sense, as Newton and Einstein exemplified. Philosophy is not a natural science, nor is it a literary art, but before the natural sciences, the path of philosophy is unfolded; At the top of the mountain of literature and art, the ladder of philosophy appeared. Philosophy constantly stimulates people's spirit of exploration and creativity, enabling people to reach new realms in the process of understanding the world, and to transform the world from the kingdom of necessity to the kingdom of freedom. Philosophy continues to arise again from the most fundamental questions. In a certain sense, the history of philosophy is the constant reconstruction of new world views and the understanding of mankind's own history. The historical presentation of philosophy is the best illustration of the creative nature of philosophy. Every philosopher in the history of philosophy thinks about fundamental questions and adds new thinking and new dimensions to philosophy, just like adding a yellow owl to the Tianyu Mountain. If philosophy is a unifying feature in the continuous unfolding of the history of philosophy, then this "oneness" is realized in the creation of "many" philosophies. If every philosophical system pursues a systematic "one," then there is a relationship of inextricable connection and multi-party combination between each "one" system. This is precisely what the history of philosophy shows about the diversity of our philosophy. The interdependence of diversity and unity is precisely the meaning of the dialectic of philosophy seeking the unity of phenomenon and essence, concrete and universal. The pursuit of philosophy is the natural tendency of the human spirit, the flower of spiritual freedom. Philosophy is freedom of thought, free thought. Chinese philosophy is the most intrinsic, profound and enduring expression of spiritual pursuit and value in the 5,000-year-old civilization tradition of the Chinese nation. Chinese philosophy has been transformed into the Chinese way of thinking, attitude to life, moral code, life pursuit, and spiritual realm. Chinese people's science and technology, ethics and morality, small family and big country, traditional Chinese medicine, poetry and literature, painting calligraphy, martial arts boxing, rural folk customs, and even daily life are also imbued with the spirit of Chinese philosophy. Although Chinese culture has survived hardships, it has been able to awaken the spirit and stand tenaciously, precisely because of the profound thinking and creativity of Chinese philosophy. In the pre-Qin era, the dispute between Laozi, Confucius, Zhuangzi, Sun Zi, Han Feizi and other sons was the expression of philosophical spirit in China and the first great outbreak of ideological emancipation of the Chinese people. The ideas and systems of the two Han dynasties for more than 400 years are the result of the great integration of the ideas of the hundred schools of thought in the process of contention. During the Wei and Jin dynasties, the occurrence of metaphysics was the result of Confucianism breaking through their respective barriers and interacting with each other, forming a situation of Confucian exposition. In the three hundred years of the Sui and Tang dynasties, Buddhism penetrated deep into Chinese culture, which once again brought about the great integration and liberation of ideas, and the formation of Zen Buddhism was the result of this integration and liberation. In the past two and three hundred years, Chinese philosophy ushered in the third great liberation. The mutual support between the three teachings of Confucianism and Taoism has deepened day by day, and Zhu Xi's theory and Lu Xiangshan's psychology are the philosophical crystallization of this ideological trend. Unlike ancient Greek philosophy, which emphasized contemplation and theoretical construction, Chinese philosophy is interested in practicing humanistic concerns, and it is more concerned with the rational meaning of practice. In Chinese philosophy, knowledge and action have never been separated, Chinese philosophy has a profound practical perspective and life view, and ethics and morality are the contributions of the Chinese. Marx said that "all social life is essentially practical," and the viewpoint of practice and life is also the basic viewpoint of Marxist epistemology. This philosophical fit is precisely the reason why Marxism has been able to take root in China and continue to sinicize. "Seeking truth from facts" is an old Chinese saying. Today it has become a profound philosophy and a benchmark for Chinese people's way of thinking and behavior. Seeking truth from facts means emancipating the mind, and emancipating the mind means seeking truth from facts. Seeking truth is the essence of Mao Zedong Thought and the cornerstone of reform and opening up. Only by emancipating the mind can we seek truth from facts. Seeking truth from facts is the philosophical thinking that the Chinese people have always adhered to. To seek truth from facts is to rely on oneself, follow one's own path, and oppose all unscrupulous concepts. The so-called Sinicization means that everything starts from China's reality, and all theories must conform to China's reality. The practice of diversity in philosophy is the form of human existence and the mother of philosophy. Practice is the driving force, source, value, and standard of thinking. The fundamental purpose of people to understand the world and explore laws is to transform the world and improve themselves. The formulation and answer of philosophical questions are inseparable from practice. Marx famously said, "Philosophers just explain the world in different ways, and the problem is to change the world!" Only when theory becomes the spiritual wisdom of man can it become a force for changing the world. Philosophy cares about human destiny. The philosophy of the times must be concerned with the fate of the times. Concern for the destiny of the times is concern for human practice and destiny. Everything that man produces in practice is realistic. The practicality of philosophy must bring with it the reality of philosophy. The reality of philosophy is to emphasize the attitude that one should have in constantly answering questions in practice. Philosophy as a science is realistic. Philosophy is a science that answers and explains reality, and philosophy is the idea that people connect with reality and face reality. It can be said that philosophy is the most essential theory of reality and the most realistic theory of essence. Philosophy always asks about the development and change of reality. Philosophy exists in practice and must develop in reality. The reality of philosophy requires us to confront practice itself. Philosophy is not simply following practice and becoming a "slave" in current practice, but in a unique and profound way, it pays attention to the development of practice, raises the level of human practice, and provides theoretical support for social practice. To understand and engage in philosophy from direct, short-term demands is tantamount to presenting philosophy with tasks that are impossible in itself. Philosophy is deep reflection, heavy wisdom, abstraction of things, grasp of theory. Philosophy is the deepest theoretical thinking that mankind has in grasping the world. Philosophy is the study based on man, the wisdom that man uses to understand the world, grasp the world, and transform the world. "What is good for the people, what is good, what is good for the people, what is beneficial." The purpose of philosophy is for man. Using philosophy to understand the external world and understand people themselves is also to use philosophy to transform the world and transform people. Philosophical study has no forbidden zone, no end and no boundary, with the universe, with human beings. Existence is diverse and development is diverse, which is the inevitability of the objective world. Everything in the universe itself is a variety of beings, many changes. History shows that each nation's culture has its own unique value. Cultural diversity is the law of nature, the driving force, and the vitality. It is the law that various national cultures borrow from each other, supplement and impregnate and jointly promote the development and prosperity of human society. The diversity and complexity of the objects determine the diversity of philosophy; Even for the same thing, people will have different philosophical understandings and form different philosophical schools. The differences in philosophical views, trends, schools and their manifestations come from the epochal, regional and national differences in philosophy. World philosophy is a collection of philosophies of different nationalities, such as Chinese philosophy, Western philosophy, Arab philosophy, etc. Diversity makes up the world, and flowers bloom to form gardens. Different peoples will have different styles of philosophy. It is precisely the national nature of philosophy that enables different philosophies to perform various "dramas" on the world stage. Even if there are similar philosophical views, the expression and application in practice will have their own characteristics. Human practice is multifaceted, diverse, and developing, and can be roughly divided into: the practice of transforming nature, the practice of transforming human society, the practice of perfecting man himself, and enhancing the spiritual activities of man's spiritual world. Man is a person in practice, and practice is the first attribute of human life. The social nature of practice determines the social nature of philosophy, which is not a certain reverie divorced from social reality, but a conceptual form of social real life, an important symbol of civilization progress, and an important dimension of human development. The development of philosophy reflects the rational maturity of a society and the degree of civilization of this society. The history of philosophy is essentially a summary and summary of natural history, social history, the history of human development and the history of human thought. Nature is diverse, society is diverse, and the human mind is diverse. The so-called diversity of philosophy is the similarities and differences between the basic concepts, theories, and methods of philosophy, and the diversity of philosophical ways of thinking. The diversity of philosophy is the norm in philosophy, a sign of its progress, development, and prosperity. Philosophy is man's philosophy, philosophy is man's consciousness of things, man's knowledge of the outside world and self-understanding, and man's grasp of the world and self. The diversity of philosophy is the norm and necessity of philosophy, and the internal driving force for the development and prosperity of philosophy. It is generally universal, and the characteristics are also universal. The transition from singularity to diversity, from simplicity to complexity, is a major change in philosophical thinking. Using one philosophical discourse and method to negate another is not in itself a philosophical attitude. Diversity does not negate commonality, unity, universality. Matter and spirit, existence and consciousness, everything is in motion and change, which is the basic problem of philosophy and our basic philosophical viewpoint! Today's world is so complex, philosophical diversity is a reflection of the world's diversity. Philosophy is the real world expressed in the form of ideas. Philosophical diversity is the expression of the diversity of civilizations and the diversity of human historical development. Diversity is the way of the universe. The practicality and diversity of philosophy is also reflected in the epochality of philosophy. Philosophy is always the essence of the spirit of a particular era, and it is a theoretical form of human reflective activity under certain historical conditions. In different eras, philosophy has different contents and forms, and the diversity of philosophy is also an expression of the diversity of historical eras. The diversity of philosophy will also allow us to understand different historical eras more scientifically and understand the truth of historical development more internally. Diversity is the way of history. The reason why philosophy can play the role of emancipating the mind is that it always pays attention to practice and the development of reality; It has always been concerned with the progress of science and technology. Philosophy itself has no space, no free world, but only a reflection of the objective world, a form of ideas. Without reality, philosophy is far from man, away from existence. The practice of philosophy is, in the end, helping philosophy to be human philosophy in essence, human thinking, and human science! The practical and diverse nature of philosophy tells us that philosophy must blossom and compete with a hundred schools of thought. The development of philosophy must first liberate oneself and liberate philosophy, that is, to achieve changes in thinking, concepts and paradigms. Human development must also go hand in hand, exchange and mutual learning, and prosper together. Picking the powder of a hundred flowers can brew the honey of the world. 3. Philosophy and Contemporary China China has had a tradition of speculation since ancient times, and the contention of a hundred schools of thought in the history of Chinese thought is a historical image of the prosperity of philosophy. Philosophy is the clarion call for the development of history. Every great leap forward in Chinese ideology and culture is the result of philosophical emancipation. The ideas of ancient Chinese sages have been passed down to this day, and their wisdom has been immersed in the spiritual realm and life feelings of the Chinese people. In 1938, under the most difficult conditions of the War of Resistance Against Japan, Mao Zedong studied philosophy in Yan'an and created the theory of practice and contradiction, which promoted the ideological emancipation of the Chinese revolution and became the spiritual force of the Chinese people. The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation will surely usher in a new development in Chinese philosophy. Contemporary China must have its own philosophy, and contemporary Chinese philosophy must fundamentally explain the philosophical principles of the Chinese road. The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation requires philosophical thinking and constant and in-depth reflection. The road of development is the road of philosophical thinking, and the self-confidence of culture is the self-confidence of philosophical thinking. Philosophy is the leader, which can be called the eternal "Beidou," and philosophy is the "flame" of the times, the most exquisite and profound "light" of the times. In the sense of social change, any great social change is always preceded by theoretical thinking. The change of theory is always premised on the unprecedented emancipation of ideology and concepts, and what "blows" the first "trumpet" of the emancipation of mankind's mind is often philosophy that represents the essence of the spirit of the times. The demand for philosophy in social practice can be called "impatient", because philosophy always "blows" the "trumpet" of this new era. What "sounded" the "clarion call" of China's reform and opening up was precisely philosophical concepts such as "emancipating the mind," "practice is the only criterion for testing truth," and "no reform is a dead end." "Sounding" the "trumpet" of the new era is the "Chinese dream," and "the people's yearning for a better life is the goal of our struggle." Development is the eternal driving force of human society, change is the eternal topic of social emancipation, and ideological emancipation and emancipation of the mind are endless philosophies. China is on the road of dual exploration of theory and practice, and exploration cannot be achieved without philosophy! The new development of Chinese philosophy must reflect the latest practical achievements of China and the world, must reflect the latest achievements of science, and must have the ideological power to move toward the future. The historical era facing the Chinese people today is unprecedented. What a historical picture of 1.3 billion people marching toward modernization! How magnificent and shocking! It has never been unprecedented not only in the history of China, but also in the history of the world. The philosophy that China needs today is a philosophy that combines the way of heaven, geography, and human morality, and a philosophy that integrates ancient and modern China and the West, and only such a philosophy is the philosophy of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The philosophy that China needs today must be a philosophy suitable for China. No matter ancient or modern, Chinese or foreign, no matter how good things are, they also need to be absorbed and digested again, and must undergo modernization and sinicization before they can become China's own philosophy today. Philosophy is the liberation of people, and the development of philosophy itself is also a liberation of the mind, and it is also a process of sublimation and feathering of people's thinking. The emancipation of the Chinese people's minds has always proceeded with history. As long as history is, how long is the road to emancipation of the mind; Development and progress are eternal, ideological emancipation is also endless, and ideological emancipation is the emancipation of philosophy. Xi Jinping said that ideological work is to "guide people to have a more comprehensive and objective understanding of contemporary China and the outside world." This requires us to establish an intellectual attitude and theoretical stance of "knowing oneself and knowing oneself and knowing the other," and philosophy is the most concise and concentrated expression of the core of civilizational values, which helps us understand China and the world. To base ourselves on China and understand China, we need to examine the road we have traveled, base ourselves on China and understand the world, and we need to observe and learn from different cultures in world history. China's "unique cultural traditions," China's "unique historical destiny," and China's "unique basic national conditions" "determine that we must take a development path suited to our own characteristics." All actual and existing social systems are concrete and distinctive, and must conform to the reality of the country. Abstract systems, universal systems, do not exist. At the same time, we should comprehensively and objectively "look at the outside world." Studying ancient and modern Chinese and foreign philosophies is a compulsory course for China to understand the world, human history, and its own future development. Today's development in China requires not only reading Chinese books, but also world books. It is necessary to study not only the classics of the natural and social sciences, but also the classics of philosophy. At present, China is on the "long march" to realize the "Chinese dream," and this is precisely the road of continuous ideological emancipation! To answer China's questions and explain China's development, we first need the liberation of philosophical thinking itself. The development of philosophy is the liberation of philosophy, which is determined by the practical and contemporary nature of philosophy. Philosophy knows no forbidden areas and no boundaries. Philosophy is about the spirit of the universe, about the human mind. Philosophy will be with the universe and with humanity. 4. The compilation of the Chinese and foreign philosophical classics is to enable the Chinese people to study the foreign philosophical classics and absorb the essence of human spiritual thought; It is to improve our thinking and make the Chinese thinking more rational, more scientific and more intelligent. China has a tradition of practicing the canon in a prosperous era. There were many classics in ancient China (such as the "Yongle Dian" and the "Siku Quanshu"), and compiling a compendium of Chinese and foreign philosophical classics in the new era is our historical mission and a major ideological project for national rejuvenation. Only by studying and borrowing from the achievements of human spiritual thought can we achieve our own development and move towards the future. The compilation of Chinese and foreign philosophical classics is to inherit one's own spiritual civilization and learn from the world's excellent culture at the level of thinking and in the realm of wisdom. This is a compulsory course for us. Exchange, cooperation and friendship between different cultures must be achieved at the philosophical level of mutual recognition and reference. Dialogue and listening between philosophies is heart-to-heart communication. The compilation of Chinese and foreign philosophical classics is to build a bridge of heart-to-heart connection. We have compiled this set of philosophical classics, first, Chinese philosophy, sorting out the ideological classics in Chinese history, and condensing the essence of Chinese intellectual history; Second, foreign philosophy, mainly Western philosophy, absorbs foreign and borrows the excellent philosophical achievements of human development; the third is Marxist philosophy, showing the achievements of the Sinicization of Marxist philosophy; Fourth, China's philosophical achievements since modern times, especially the development of Marxism in China. Compiling this compendium is a long-cherished wish of the philosophical community, and it is also a dedication of the philosophical community. The encyclopedia of Chinese and foreign philosophical classics summarizes the ideas in books, the thinking of the philosophers, and the footprints of predecessors. We want to dedicate them to future generations so that they can stand on the shoulders of those who came before us and see themselves on the shores of history. The compilation of Chinese and foreign philosophical classics is to realize "God comes with knowledge" in the way of "knowing and hiding the past"; The compilation of the encyclopedia of Chinese and foreign philosophical classics is to start from the fundamental major problems facing mankind through the "original anti-end" of the history of Chinese and foreign philosophy, and to draw the great cause of the progress of human civilization on the road of the endless life of philosophical students! A developing China is not only a political and economic power, but also a cultural power, and will certainly be a philosophical and ideological power. The achievements of human spiritual civilization know no borders, the boundary of philosophy is practice, the eternity of practice is the perpetuality of philosophy, and opening one's mind to embrace the achievements of human civilization is the fundamental condition for a nation and a country to stand on its own two feet and always stand at the forefront of human civilization. Embracing the world, embracing the future, moving towards rejuvenation, and building the Chinese people's world view, outlook on life, values, and methodology is the vision and sentiment of the Chinese people, and it is also the wish of Chinese philosophers! Li Tieying, August 2018(AI翻译)

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