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中国基本公共服务供给区域差异研究

Research on Regional Differences of Basic Public Service Supply in China

孔薇[著]

公共服务 区域差异 研究 中国

2020-07-01

978-7-5203-6343-3

247

14

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内容简介

现阶段中国发展处于重要战略机遇期,正在由注重发展速度向注重发展方式转变,由注重规模扩张向注重提质增效转变,与此同时,人们对美好生活的向往更加强烈。本书立足中国31个省份区域异质性的现实,客观评价基本公共服务水平,牢固树立共享发展新理念,探究基本公共服务供给非均衡的影响因素,本着共建、共治、共享的原则,形成与公平正义和共享共富主流价值取向相吻合的对策建议,有利于实现区域协调发展。

Regional differences in basic public services are the main problems facing the equalization of basic public services. Establishing and improving the equalization mechanism of basic public services is the entry point for realizing coordinated regional development, a major national strategy in the new era, and an important embodiment of sharing the achievements of reform and opening up. Over the past 40 years of reform and opening up, with the tremendous changes in China's economy and society, the main contradiction in society has been transformed into a contradiction between the people's growing need for a better life and unbalanced and inadequate development. Among them, regional imbalance is the main manifestation of the imbalance of China's economic development. For a long time, the issue of regional differences has attracted much attention both in academia and in practice. However, regional differences are often seen as a matter of income distribution. With the upgrading of people's consumption structure, the discussion of regional differences should no longer be limited to income levels, but should be extended to per capita welfare levels. In reality, regional economic growth differences cannot be completely balanced, but per capita welfare levels can tend to be equalized. Regional differences in basic public services are essentially regional differences in the provision of basic public services. The provision of basic public services is a historical category with different connotations in different historical periods. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the connotation and extension of the supply of basic public services have been continuously expanded in the process of economic growth and structural reform, and the level of basic public services has also been continuously improved. Among them, factors such as the level of economic development, the reform of the financial system, the transformation of government functions, and the urbanization process have played an important role. To this end, this book establishes a dual-system research framework for benchmarking fairness and efficiency from the perspective of theory and empirical evidence, and comprehensively evaluates the current state of China's basic public service supply. On this basis, through empirical analysis, the influencing factors, improvement goals and natural conditions of basic public service supply level are explored, and the synergy between fairness and efficiency of basic public service supply is effectively solved. At present, the existing research results have not reached a unified conclusion on the construction of the basic public service supply index system. In particular, the definition of the connotation of public education services can no longer meet the needs of the basic ability of human capital with the rapid development of intelligence and informatization, and the investigation of science and technology public services is relatively weak. To this end, this book considers the public's demand for survival and development of a higher level of security, expands the scope of "basic" delineation in previous studies in the field of educational services, and increases the investigation of government technical guarantee supervision links in science and technology services, and constructs an evaluation index system of seven categories of first-level indicators and 29 second-level indicators on this basis. Through the investigation of the coefficient of variation of regional differences in China's basic public service supply, Gini coefficient and Thiel index, the differential level of China's basic public service supply showed a trend of narrowing. From the perspective of specific regions, the difference is the largest in the eastern region and the smallest difference in the central region. The degree of equalization of the supply of basic public services in the central region is the most obvious, and the contribution rate of the Thiel index in the central region has been fluctuating at a low level, indicating that the supply situation of various provinces in the central region is not the main source of the difference in the supply of basic public services in China. The eastern region contributed the most to the overall difference in basic public service supply, and this trend continued and increased slightly, indicating that the eastern region is the main source of the difference in basic public service supply in China. The difference level in the western region decreased the least, and the difference contribution rate increased the most, indicating that the difference in the supply of basic public services of various provincial-level administrative units in the western region is more complicated, and there may be certain differentiation. Further convergence tests show that there is a β convergence in the supply level of basic public services nationwide. Among them, the absolute β convergence speed of the basic public service supply in the eastern, central and western regions is the western, eastern and central from fast to slow, and forms three "convergence clubs". Considering the effect of conditional factors, the basic public service supply converges β conditions in cross-section regression and fixed-effect panel regression, and the convergence speed is faster than that of absolute β. It shows that the role of conditional factors affects the convergence speed, which is conducive to the realization of the goal of equalization of basic public services in China. At the same time, at this stage, the level of basic public service supply in China has the characteristics of interregional agglomeration. This feature is well documented by systematic clustering. The global Moran's I and global Geary's C tests show that there is a significant spatial autocorrelation in the level of basic public service supply in China. The local spatial autocorrelation analysis Getis-Ord index G shows that Tianjin, Hebei, Shanghai and Jiangsu are high-level aggregation areas for basic public service supply. Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Qinghai and Xinjiang are areas with low levels of basic public service provision. The overall level of China's basic public service supply index is affected by the urbanization rate, per capita GDP level, fiscal self-sufficiency rate and the proportion of local fiscal expenditure. The high proportion of local fiscal expenditure in neighboring provinces may lead to a decline in the basic public service supply index of the province. The relatively high level of local fiscal expenditure in neighboring provinces means that their local government fiscal activities are highly operable, and their investment willingness and ability to commit to economic development are also strong. In the context of financial competition between regions, it may cause competition for economic resources and human capital in the province, which will affect the supply level of basic public services in the province. When examining the eastern, central and western regions, the impact of urban population density and financial self-sufficiency rate on the eastern region is not as great as that in the central region, and the total dependency ratio has a greater impact on the western region than that in the central region. The allocation and performance of financial resources for basic public services also have strong regional differences. The results of evaluating the regional differences in basic public service supply efficiency through the three-stage DEA model show that the efficiency level of basic public service supply in China is the eastern, central and western regions from high to low, indicating that in areas with higher basic public service supply index level and better promotion of basic public services, local governments can continuously improve their operation and management capabilities in the supply process, improve the efficiency level, and verify the theory of "learning by doing". The central and western regions still have a long way to go in improving the level of basic public service supply, operation and management and pursuing economies of scale. With the in-depth advancement of the project of providing basic public services and people's livelihood, the efficiency of the use of fiscal funds in various regions has decreased to varying degrees compared with the initial stage of development, and the difficulty of government work has increased. The empirical results show that the government should pay attention to urban population agglomeration, improve the level of fiscal self-sufficiency, and in the process of promoting urbanization, pay attention to preventing the crowding effect of agricultural population entering the city and other governance problems that may be brought about by rapid urbanization, and objectively view that the improvement of economic level may increase the cost of public resource supply, thereby bringing about efficiency loss. Based on the above empirical analysis results, combined with the current situation in China, and benchmarking the dual system research framework of fairness and efficiency, this book puts forward the following countermeasures and suggestions: first, establish a legal system for the supply of basic public services, ensure the priority supply of basic public services in the form of law, strictly implement the performance evaluation mechanism of basic public service supply, pay attention to the investigation of efficiency, and avoid waste of public resources; Second, improve the construction of the public finance system, increase the cultivation of local financial resources in underdeveloped regions, increase their financial self-sufficiency rate, encourage regional entities to carry out healthy competition, and promote the reasonable flow of population; Third, appropriately promote the market-oriented reform of basic public service supply, encourage the coexistence of multiple subjects and the integration of multiple channels of capital supply mode, and at the same time inject new management experience to improve the level of supply efficiency; Fourth, strengthen democratic decision-making in government decision-making, encourage citizen participation, and improve the effectiveness of basic public service provision. Achieve the goal of equalization of basic public services and promote coordinated regional development to a higher level and higher quality. AbstractRegional differences in basic public service are the main problems in promoting the equalization of basic public service. Establishing and perfecting the equalization mechanism of basic public service is the breakthrough point of realizing the major national strategy of regional coordinated development under the background of the new era,it is also an important manifestation of sharing the achievements of reform and opening up. In the past 40 years of reform and opening up,with the great changes of China's economy and society,the main social contradiction has been transformed into the the people's growing need for a better life and the unbalanced and inadequate development. Among them,regional disproportion is the main manifestation of unbalanced economic development in China.For a long time,regional disparity has attracted much attention both in academic circle and executive department. However,regional differences are generally regarded as the problem of income distribution. With the improvement of people's consumption structure,the discussion on regional differences should not be limited to income level,but should be extended to the level of per capita welfare. In reality,the difference of regional economic growth can not be completely balanced,but the per-capita welfare level tends to be equal. Regional differences in basic public service are essentially regional differences in the supply of basic public service. The supply of basic public service is a histori cal category with diverse connotations in different histori cal periods. After the founding of New China,the connotation and extension of basic public service supply has been expanding in the process of economic growth and system reform. The level of basic public service is also constantly impro ving. Among them,the level of economic development,the reform of financial system,the transition of government functions,and the process of urbanization play an important role in the supply of basic public service. Therefore,from the theoreti cal and empiri cal point of view,this paper establishes a dual system research framework for the benchmark of equity and efficiency,then,it makes a comprehensive assessment of the current state of the supply of basic public service in China.On this basis,through empiri cal analysis,this paper explores the influencing factors、the improvement objectives and the status quo as it should be,and strives to effectively solve the problem of synergy between equity and efficiency of basic public service provision. At present,the existing research results fail to form a unified conclusion on the construction of the index system of basic public service supply. Especially the original definition of the connotation of basic education service can no longer meet the needs of the rapid development of intelligence and information technology for the basic quality of human capital,and the public service of science and technology is also relatively weak. Therefor,this paper considers the public's demand for a higher level of security for survival and development. It expands the scope of“basic”measurement in educational service. At the same time,the contents of government techni cal support and supervision in scientific and technologi cal service are newly added. On this basis,the evaluation index system of seven categories of first-level indicators and twenty-nine second-level indicators is constructed. The regional differences of basic public service supply are measured by coefficient of variation,Gini coefficient and Theil index. Through the results,we find that the gap level of basic public service supply in China is shrinking. Seen from the specific regional plate,the eastern region has the greatest difference and the central region is the smallest. The degree of equalization of basic public service supply in the central region is the most obvious. The contribution rate of Theil index in the central region has been fluctuating at a low level,which shows that the supply situation of provinces in the central region is not the main source of the difference in the supply of basic public service in China.The east ern region contributes the most to the overall difference,and this trend can be continued,with a small increase. It shows that the eastern region is the main source of the difference in the supply of basic public service in China.The western region has the smallest decline in the level of disparity,and the growth rate of its contribution to disparity is indeed the largest. It shows that the supply gap of basic public service in the western provinces is more complex,and there may be some polarization. Further convergence test shows that the supply level of basic public service in China has β convergence. The absolute β convergence rate of basic public service supply in the three regions is in the order of West,East and Central,and three convergence clubs are formed. Conditional β convergence test results show constringency in both cross-section regression and fixed-effect panel regression,convergence rate is faster than absolute β convergence rate. It shows that the effect of conditional factors affects the convergence rate,which is conducive to the realization of the goal of equalization of basic public service in China.Furthermore,at the present stage,the supply level of basic public service in China has the characteristics of regional agglomeration. This feature is fully demonstrated by systematic clustering analysis. The global Moran's I and Geary's C test show that there is significant spatial autocorrelation in the supply level of basic public service in China.According to the index of lo cal spatial autocorrelation Getis-Ord's G analysis,Tianjin,Hebei,Shanghai and Jiangsu are high-level aggregation areas of basic public service supply; Sichuan,Guizhou,Yunnan,Qinghai and Xinjiang are low-level aggregation areas of basic public service supply. The supply index level of basic public service in China is affected by urbanization rate,per capita GDP level,financial self-sufficiency rate and the proportion of lo cal fis cal expenditure. The higher the relative level of lo cal fis cal expenditure in adjacent provinces,it will lead to a decline in the BPS index of this province. The higher the level of lo cal fis cal expenditure in adjacent provinces means that financial activities of lo cal governments are more operable,lo cal governments have more willingness and ability to invest in economic develop ment. Under the background of interregional fis cal competition,it may lead to competition for economic resources and human resources in the province,which will affect the level of basic public service supply in the province. When investigating the eastern,central and western regions,the impact of urban population density and financial self-sufficiency rate on the eastern region is less than that on the central region,and the total dependency ratio has a greater impact on the western region than that on the central region. The allocation of financial resource and its performance also have strong regional differences. Three-stage DEA model is used to evaluate the regional differences in the efficiency of basic public service supply. From the perspective of the efficiency level of basic public service supply in China,from the highest to the lowest is the eastern region,the central region and the western region. It shows that the supply index of basic public service is relatively high,lo cal governments can continuously improve their operation and management ability in the supply process,and the efficiency level can be improved. The viewpoint of“learning by doing”theory can be verified. The central and western regions have a long way to go in improving the management level of basic public service supply and pursuing economies of s cale. However,with the deepening of the project of basic public service for people's livelihood,the efficiency of financial allocation of lo cal governments has decreased in varying degrees compared with the early stage,and the government's work is more difficult. Empiri cal results show that the government should pay more attention to the agglomeration of urban population and improve the level of lo cal financial self-sufficiency. At the same time,in the process of urbanization,the government should pay attention to the prevention of such governance issues as the crowding effect of the agricultural population entering the city if urbanization is too fast,and take an objective view that the improvement of economic level may increase the cost of public resources supply,thus resulting in efficiency loss. According to the empiri cal analysis results,combined with the current situation in China,this paper puts forward the following suggestions based on the framework of benchmarking dual-system research: Firstly,we should establish a legal system for the supply of basic public service,guarantee the priority supply of basic public service,strictly implement the performance evaluation mechanism for the supply of basic public service,pursue the inspection of efficiency and avoid the waste of public resources. Secondly,we should improve the public finance system,strengthen the cultivation of lo cal financial resources in underdeveloped regions,raise the level of financial self-sufficiency rate, encourage the main bodies of various regions to carry out healthy competition and promote the rational flow of population. Thirdly,we should strengthen market-oriented reform,encourage the application of multi-subject co-existence and multichannel co-financing mode of capital supply,and inject new management experience to improve the level of supply efficiency. Fourthly,we should strengthen democratic decision-making in government decisions,encourage citizens to participate actively,and ultimately enhance the effectiveness of basic public service supply. It is hoped that the goal of equalization of basic public service will be achieved and the coordinated development of all regions will be strided forward to a higher level and quality.(AI翻译)

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