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周易口義

《周易》 研究

2021-03-01

978-7-5203-8070-6

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内容简介

中國古無「哲學」之名,但如近代的王國維所説,「哲學爲中國固有之學」。
「哲學」的譯名出自日本啓蒙學者西周,他在一八七四年出版的百一新論中説:「將論明天道人道,兼立教法的philosophy譯名爲哲學。」自「哲學」譯名的成立,「philosophy」或「哲學」就已有了東西方文化交融互鑒的性質。
「philosophy」在古希臘文化中的本義是「愛智」,而「哲學」的「哲」在中國古經書中的字義就是「智」或「大智」。孔子在臨終時慨嘆而歌:「泰山壞乎!梁柱摧乎!哲人萎乎!」(史記孔子世家)「哲人」在中國古經書中釋爲「賢智之人」,而在「哲學」譯名輸入中國後即可稱爲「哲學家」。
哲學是智慧之學,是關於宇宙和人生之根本問題的學問。對此,中西或中外哲學是共同的,因而哲學具有世界人類文化的普遍性。但是,正如世界各民族文化既有世界的普遍性,也有民族的特殊性,所以世界各民族哲學也具有不同的風格和特色。如果説「哲學」是個「共名」或「類稱」,那麽世界各民族哲學就是此類中不同的「特例」。這是哲學的普遍性與多樣性的統一。
在中國哲學中,關於宇宙的根本道理稱爲「天道」,關於人生的根本道理稱爲「人道」,中國哲學的一個貫穿始終的核心問題就是「究天人之際」。一般説來,天人關係問題是中外哲學普遍探索的問題,而中國哲學的「究天人之際」具有自身的特點。
亞里士多德曾説:「古今來人們開始哲學探索,都應起於對自然萬物的驚異……這類學術研究的開始,都在人生的必需品以及使人快樂安適的種種事物幾乎全都獲得了以後。」「這些知識最先出現於人們開始有閒暇的地方。」這是説的古希臘哲學的一個特點,是與當時古希臘的社會歷史發展階段及其貴族階層的生活方式相聯繫的。與此不同,中國哲學是産生於士人在社會大變動中的憂患意識,爲了求得社會的治理和人生的安頓,他們大多「席不暇暖」地周遊列國,宣傳自己的社會主張。這就决定了中國哲學在「究天人之際」中首重「知人」,在先秦「百家争鳴」中的各主要流派都是「務爲治者也,直所從言之異路,有省不省耳」(史記太史公自序)。
中國哲學與其他民族哲學所不同者,還在於中國數千年文化一直生生不息而未嘗中斷,中國文化在世界歷史的「軸心時期」所實現的哲學突破也是采取了極温和的方式。這主要表現在孔子的「祖述堯舜,憲章文武」,删述六經,對中國上古的文化既有連續性的繼承,又經編纂和詮釋而有哲學思想的突破。因此,由孔子及其後學所編纂和詮釋的上古經書就以「先王之政典」的形式不僅保存下來,而且在此後中國文化的發展中居於統率的地位。
據近期出土的文獻資料,先秦儒家在戰國時期已有對「六經」的排列,「六經」作爲一個著作群受到儒家的高度重視。至漢武帝「罷黜百家,表章六經」,遂使「六經」以及儒家的經學確立了由國家意識形態認可的統率地位。漢書藝文志著録圖書,爲首的是「六藝略」,其次是「諸子略」「詩賦略」「兵書略」「數術略」和「方技略」,這就體現了以「六經」統率諸子學和其他學術。這種圖書分類經幾次調整,到了隋書經籍志乃正式形成「經、史、子、集」的四部分類,此後保持穩定而延續至清。
中國傳統文化有「四部」的圖書分類,也有對「義理之學」「考據之學」「辭章之學」和「經世之學」等的劃分,其中「義理之學」雖然近於「哲學」但並不等同。中國傳統文化没有形成「哲學」以及近現代教育學科體制的分科,但是中國傳統文化確實固有其深邃的哲學思想,它表達了中華民族的世界觀、人生觀,體現了中華民族的思維方式、行爲準則,凝聚了中華民族最深沉、最持久的價值追求。
清代學者戴震説:「天人之道,經之大訓萃焉。」(原善卷上)經書和經學中講「天人之道」的「大訓」,就是中國傳統的哲學;不僅如此,在圖書分類的「子、史、集」中也有講「天人之道」的「大訓」,這些也是中國傳統的哲學。「究天人之際」的哲學主題是在中國文化上下幾千年的發展中,伴隨著歷史的進程而不斷深化、轉陳出新、持續探索的。
中國哲學首重「知人」,在天人關係中是以「知人」爲中心,以「安民」或「爲治」爲宗旨的。在記載中國上古文化的尚書皋陶謨中,就有了「知人則哲,能官人;安民則惠,黎民懷之」的表述。在論語中,「樊遲問仁,子曰:“愛人。”問知(智),子曰:“知人。”」(論語顔淵)「仁者愛人」是孔子思想中的最高道德範疇,其源頭可上溯到中國文化自上古以來就形成的崇尚道德的優秀傳統。孔子説:「未能事人,焉能事鬼?」「未知生,焉知死?」(論語先進)「務民之義,敬鬼神而遠之,可謂知矣。」(論語雍也)「智者知人」,在孔子的思想中雖然保留了對「天」和鬼神的敬畏,但他的主要關注點是現世的人生,是「仁者愛人」「天下有道」的價值取向,由此確立了中國哲學以「知人」爲中心的思想範式。西方現代哲學家雅斯貝爾斯在大哲學家一書中把蘇格拉底、佛陀、孔子和耶穌作爲「思想範式的創造者」,而孔子思想的特點就是「要在世間建立一種人道的秩序」,「在現世的可能性之中」,孔子「希望建立一個新世界」。
中國上古時期把「天」或「上帝」作爲最高的信仰對象,這種信仰也有其宗教的特殊性。如梁啓超所説:「各國之尊天者,常崇之於萬有之外,而中國則常納之於人事之中,此吾中華所特長也。……其尊天也,目的不在天國而在世界,受用不在未來(來世)而在現在(現世)。是故人倫亦稱天倫,人道亦稱天道。記曰:“善言天者必有驗於人。”此所以雖近於宗教,而與他國之宗教自殊科也。」由於中國上古文化所信仰的「天」不是存在於與人世生活相隔絶的「彼岸世界」,而是與地相聯繫(中庸所謂「郊社之禮,所以事上帝也」,朱熹中庸章句注:「郊,祀天;社,祭地。不言后土者,省文也。」),具有道德的、以民爲本的特點(尚書所謂「皇天無親,惟德是輔」,「天視自我民視,天聽自我民聽」,「民之所欲,天必從之」),所以這種特殊的宗教性也長期地影響著中國哲學對天人關係的認識。相傳「人更三聖,世經三古」的易經,其本爲卜筮之書,但經孔子「觀其德義而已」之後,則成爲講天人關係的哲理之書。四庫全书總目易類序説:「聖人覺世牖民,大抵因事以寓教……易則寓於卜筮。故易之爲書,推天道以明人事者也。」不僅易經是如此,而且以後中國哲學的普遍架構就是「推天道以明人事」。
春秋末期,與孔子同時而比他年長的老子,原創性地提出了「有物混成,先天地生」(老子二十五章),天地並非固有的,在天地産生之前有「道」存在,「道」是産生天地萬物的總根源和總根據。「道」内在於天地萬物之中就是「德」,「孔德之容,惟道是從」(老子二十一章),「道」與「德」是統一的。老子説:「道生之,德畜之,物形之,勢成之。是以萬物莫不尊道而貴德。道之尊,德之貴,夫莫之命而常自然。」(老子五十一章)老子的價值主張是「自然無爲」,而「自然無爲」的天道根據就是「道生之,德畜之……是以萬物莫不尊道而貴德」。老子所講的「德」實即相當於「性」,孔子所罕言的「性與天道」,在老子哲學中就是講「道」與「德」的形而上學。實際上,老子哲學確立了中國哲學「性與天道合一」的思想,而他從「道」與「德」推出「自然無爲」的價值主張,這就成爲以後中國哲學「推天道以明人事」普遍架構的一個典範。雅斯貝爾斯在大哲學家一書中把老子列入「原創性形而上學家」,他説:「從世界歷史來看,老子的偉大是同中國的精神結合在一起的。」他評價孔、老關係時説:「雖然兩位大師放眼於相反的方向,但他們實際上立足於同一基礎之上。兩者間的統一在中國的偉大人物身上則一再得到體現……」這裏所謂「中國的精神」「立足於同一基礎之上」,就是説孔子和老子的哲學都是爲了解决現實生活中的問題,都是「務爲治者也」。
在老子哲學之後,中庸説:「天命之謂性」,「思知人,不可以不知天」。孟子説:「盡其心者知其性也,知其性則知天矣。」(孟子盡心上)此後的中國哲學家雖然對天道和人性有不同的認識,但大抵都是講人性源於天道,知天是爲了知人。一直到宋明理學家講「天者理也」,「性即理也」,「性與天道合一存乎誠」。作爲宋明理學之開山著作的周敦頤太極圖説,是從「無極而太極」講起,至「形既生矣,神發知矣,五性感動而善惡分,萬事出矣」,這就是從天道講到人事,而其歸結爲「聖人定之以中正仁義而主静,立人極焉」,這就是從天道、人性推出人事應該如何,「立人極」就是要確立人事的價值準則。可以説,中國哲學的「推天道以明人事」最終指向的是人生的價值觀,這也就是要「爲天地立心,爲生民立命,爲往聖繼絶學,爲萬世開太平」。在作爲中國哲學主流的儒家哲學中,價值觀又是與道德修養的工夫論和道德境界相聯繫。因此,天人合一、真善合一、知行合一成爲中國哲學的主要特點。
中國哲學經歷了不同的歷史發展階段,從先秦時期的諸子百家争鳴,到漢代以後的儒家經學獨尊,而實際上是儒道互補,至魏晋玄學乃是儒道互補的一個結晶;在南北朝時期逐漸形成儒、釋、道三教鼎立,從印度傳來的佛教逐漸適應中國文化的生態環境,至隋唐時期完成中國化的過程而成爲中國文化的一個有機組成部分;宋明理學則是吸收了佛、道二教的思想因素,返而歸於「六經」,又創建了論語孟子大學中庸的「四書」體系,建構了以「理、氣、心、性」爲核心範疇的新儒學。因此,中國哲學不僅具有自身的特點,而且具有不同發展階段和不同學派思想内容的豐富性。
一八四〇年之後,中國面臨着「數千年未有之變局」,中國文化進入了近現代轉型的時期。在甲午戰敗之後的一八九五年,「哲學」的譯名出現在黄遵憲的日本國志和鄭觀應的盛世危言(十四卷本)中。此後,「哲學」以一個學科的形式,以哲學的「獨立之精神,自由之思想」推動了中華民族的思想解放和改革開放,中、外哲學會聚於中國,中、外哲學的交流互鑒使中國哲學的發展呈現出新的形態,馬克思主義哲學在與中國的歷史文化傳統、中國具體的革命和建設實踐相結合的過程中不斷中國化而産生新的理論成果。中華民族的偉大復興必將迎來中國哲學的新發展,在此之際,編纂中外哲學典籍大全,中國哲學典籍第一次與外國哲學典籍會聚於此大全中,這是中國盛世修典史上的一個首創,對於今後中國哲學的發展、對於中華民族的偉大復興具有重要的意義。
李存山
二〇一八年八月

There was no name for "philosophy" in ancient China, but as Wang Guowei put it in modern times, "philosophy is inherent in China." The name "Philosophy" comes from the Japanese scholar Nishi Shu, who said in his 1874 Hundred and Eleven New Treatise: "The philosophy of the Tomorrow Taoist and the establishment of Shariah is translated as Philosophy." Since the establishment of the translation of "philosophy", "philosophy" or "philosophy" has had the nature of blending Eastern and Western cultures. The original meaning of "philosophy" in ancient Greek culture is "love wisdom", and the word meaning of "philosophy" in ancient Chinese scriptures is "wisdom" or "great wisdom". Confucius sighed on his deathbed: "Mount Tai is bad! Pillars and pillars are destructive! The philosopher withered!" "Philosopher" is interpreted in ancient Chinese scriptures as "wise man", and after the translation of "philosophy" is entered into China, he can be called "philosopher". Philosophy is the science of wisdom, the study of fundamental questions about the universe and of life. In this regard, Chinese and Western or Chinese and foreign philosophies are common, so philosophy has the universality of the world's human culture. However, just as the cultures of the peoples of the world have both the universality of the world and the particularity of the nation, the philosophies of the peoples of the world also have different styles and characteristics. If "philosophy" is a "common name" or "class name," then the philosophy of the peoples of the world is a different "special case" of this category. This is the unity of the universality and diversity of philosophy. In Chinese philosophy, the fundamental truth about the universe is called "the way of heaven" and the fundamental truth about life is called "humanity", and one of the core issues of Chinese philosophy that runs through is "the time between heaven and man". Generally speaking, the issue of the relationship between heaven and man is a problem commonly explored by Chinese and foreign philosophies, and the "time between heaven and man" of Chinese philosophy has its own characteristics. Aristotle once said: "Throughout the ages, people have begun philosophical exploration, which should have arisen from amazement at all things in nature... The beginning of such academic research has been followed by almost all the necessities of life and all the things that make people happy and comfortable." "This knowledge first appeared in places where people began to have leisure." This is said to be a feature of ancient Greek philosophy, which is linked to the stage of socio-historical development of ancient Greece and the way of life of its aristocracy. In contrast, Chinese philosophy is born out of the sense of distress of the people in the great social changes, and in order to seek social governance and life settlement, most of them travel around the world "in full time" to promote their social ideas. This determines that Chinese philosophy attaches the first importance to "knowing people" in the "time of studying heaven and man", and the main schools of thought in the "hundred schools of thought" in the pre-Qin dynasty are "those who are responsible for the ruler, and they follow different paths in their words, and there are provinces and ears" (Shiji Tai Shi Gong Self Order). What distinguishes Chinese philosophy from other national philosophies is that Chinese culture has been alive and running for thousands of years without interruption, and the philosophical breakthroughs achieved by Chinese culture in the "pivotal period" of world history have also taken an extremely gentle approach. This is mainly manifested in Confucius's "Zushu Shun and Charter Wenwu", which abridges the Six Classics, which has both a continuous inheritance of ancient Chinese culture and a breakthrough in philosophical thought through compilation and interpretation. Therefore, the ancient scriptures compiled and interpreted by Confucius and his successors were not only preserved in the form of the "political canon of the first king", but also occupied a unified position in the development of Chinese culture after that. According to recently unearthed documents, pre-Qin Confucians already arranged the "Six Classics" during the Warring States period, and the "Six Classics" were highly valued by Confucians as a group of works. By the time Emperor Wudi of Han "deposed the Hundred Schools and Manifested the Six Classics", the Six Classics and the Confucian scriptures established a dominant position recognized by the national ideology. Han Shu Art Literature is composed of books, starting with the "Six Arts Strategy", followed by the "Jizi Strategy", "Poetry Strategy", "Soldier Strategy", "Mathematical Strategy" and "Fang Technique Strategy", which embodies the "Six Classics" to govern the study of Shuzi and other scholars. This classification of books was adjusted several times, until the Sui Shu Jingzhi formally formed the four-part category of "Jing, History, Sub, and Collection", and then remained stable and continued until the Qing Dynasty. Traditional Chinese culture has "four" book classifications, and there are also divisions of "the science of righteousness", "the study of evidence", "the study of words" and "the study of the world", among which "the science of righteousness" is close to "philosophy" but not equivalent. Chinese traditional culture has not formed "philosophy" and the division of modern education system, but Chinese traditional culture does have its profound philosophical thoughts, which express the world outlook and outlook on life of the Chinese nation, embody the Chinese nation's way of thinking and behavior standards, and embody the deepest and most enduring value pursuit of the Chinese nation. Qing Dynasty scholar Dai Zhen said: "The way of heaven and man has been refined through great teaching." The "great teachings" of the scriptures and scriptures that speak of the "way of heaven and man" are traditional Chinese philosophies; Not only that, but in the "Zi, History, and Collection" classified as books, there are also "great lessons" about the "way of heaven and man", which are also traditional Chinese philosophies. The philosophical theme of "Studying Heaven and Man" has been continuously deepened, transformed and continuously explored along with the course of history in the development of Chinese culture for thousands of years. Chinese philosophy focuses on "knowing people", and in the relationship between heaven and man, it is centered on "knowing people" and "Anmin" or "governing for governance" as the purpose. In the Shangshu Gao pottery that records ancient Chinese culture, there is "knowing people and philosophers, capable officials; An Min Zehui, Li Min Huaizhi". In the Analects, "Fan Chi asked Ren, Zi Yu: "Lover." Ask Zhi (Zhi), Zi Yu: "Know people." "The benevolent and loving the other" is the highest moral category in Confucius thought, and its origins can be traced back to the excellent tradition of advocating morality formed in Chinese culture since ancient times. Confucius said, "If you fail to do things to people, can you do things to ghosts?" "Unknown life, do you know death?" "The righteousness of the people, worship ghosts and gods and stay away, can be said to know." Although Confucius retained his reverence for "heaven" and ghosts and gods, his main concern was the present life, the value orientation of "benevolence loves others" and "the world has a way", thus establishing the ideological paradigm of Chinese philosophy centered on "knowing people". The modern Western philosopher Jaspers in The Great Philosopher identified Socrates, Buddha, Confucius, and Jesus as "creators of the paradigm of thought," and the characteristic of Confucius' thought was "to establish a humane order in the world," and "in the midst of the possibilities of the present world," Confucius "wished to build a new world." In ancient China, "heaven" or "God" was regarded as the highest object of belief, and this belief also has its religious peculiarities. As Liang Kaichao said: "The honorable of heaven in all countries is always exalted beyond all things, while China is always included in personnel. ...... His purpose is not in heaven but in the world, and his use is not in the future (the next life) but in the present (in the present life). It is the old human ethic also known as Tianlun, and humanity is also called Heavenly Dao. Remember: "He who speaks well will test man." "Although this is close to religion, it is also different from the religion of other countries." Since the "heaven" believed in ancient Chinese culture did not exist in the "other side world" that was separated from human life, but was connected with the earth (the middle mean is called "the rite of the suburban community, so God is also the thing", Zhu Xi Zhongyong chapter notes: "suburbs, worship the heavens; Shrine, sacrificial ground. Those who do not speak of the soil, the province is also provincial." ), with the characteristics of morality and people-oriented (Shangshu called "the emperor has no relatives, only virtue is an aid", "heaven sees itself and the people see, heaven listens to its own people", "what the people want, heaven will follow"), so this special religion has also long influenced Chinese philosophy's understanding of the relationship between heaven and man. According to legend, the I Ching, which is said to be "more holy in man and three ancient in the world", was originally a book of Buzheng, but after Confucius "observed its virtue and righteousness", it became a philosophical book about the relationship between heaven and man. The preface to the general bibliography of the four libraries says: "The saints are aware of the people of the world, and they are generally edutainments... Yi lived in Bu Xiao. Therefore, Yi Zhi is a book, and he who pushes the way of heaven to understand people." This is not only the case with the I Ching, but the general framework of later Chinese philosophy is "pushing the heavens to understand people." At the end of the Spring and Autumn Period, Lao Tzu, who was older than Confucius at the same time, originally proposed that "things are mixed and born innately" (Lao Tzu 25), that heaven and earth are not intrinsic, and that "Dao" existed before the birth of heaven and earth, and "Dao" is the general source and basis for the birth of all things in heaven and earth. The "Tao" is "virtue" in all things in heaven and earth, "the face of Kongde, but the Tao is from" (Lao Tzu 21), and "Tao" and "virtue" are unified. Lao Tzu said: "The Tao is born, the virtuous beast, the material form, and the power is achieved." It is because all things are honorable and noble. The dignity of the Tao, the nobility of virtue, the fate of Fumo and the constant nature." (Lao Tzu Chapter 51) Lao Tzu's value proposition is "natural wuwei", and the heavenly basis of "natural wuwei" is "the Tao is born, the virtuous animal ... It is that all things are honorable and noble." The "virtue" that Lao Tzu spoke of is actually equivalent to "sex", and the "sex and the way of heaven" rarely spoken by Confucius is a metaphysics of "Tao" and "virtue" in Lao Tzu's philosophy. In fact, Lao Tzu's philosophy established the idea of "the unity of sex and the way of heaven" in Chinese philosophy, and he derived the value proposition of "nature without action" from "Tao" and "virtue", which became a model for the universal framework of Chinese philosophy "pushing the way of heaven to clarify people" in the future. In The Great Philosopher's book, Jaspers listed Lao Tzu as an "original metaphysician," saying, "From the perspective of world history, Lao Tzu's greatness is combined with the spirit of China." Commenting on the Kong-Lao relationship, he said: "Although the two masters look in opposite directions, they are actually on the same foundation. The unity between the two has been repeatedly manifested in the great figures of China..."The so-called "Chinese spirit" here is "based on the same foundation", that is, the philosophy of Confucius and Lao Tzu is aimed at solving problems in real life, and they are both "the rulers." After Lao Tzu's philosophy, the middle said: "The nature of the destiny of heaven", "Thinking about people, you cannot not know the heavens". Mencius said, "He who does his best knows his nature, and he who knows his nature knows the heavens." Although later Chinese philosophers had different understandings of the way of heaven and human nature, they basically said that human nature originated from the way of heaven, and that knowing heaven was to know people. Until the Song Ming scholar said that "the heavenly one is reasonable", "sex is reason", and "sex and the way of heaven are one and sincere". As the pioneering work of Song Ming's theory, Zhou Dunping's Taiji Diagram is said to start from "Wuji and Taiji", to "form is born, God knows it, the five sexes are touching and good and evil, and everything happens", which is to talk about personnel from the way of heaven, and it boils down to "the saint determines that the right and righteous and the Lord is quiet, and the people are extreme", which is how personnel should be deduced from the way of heaven and human nature, and "establishing the human pole" is to establish the value standards of personnel. It can be said that the Chinese philosophy of "pushing the heavens and understanding people" ultimately points to the values of life, that is, to "establish a heart for heaven and earth, establish a life for the people, continue learning for the saints, and open peace for all generations." In Confucian philosophy, which is the mainstream of Chinese philosophy, values are linked to the theory of moral cultivation and the moral realm. Therefore, the unity of heaven and man, the unity of truth and goodness, and the unity of knowledge and action have become the main characteristics of Chinese philosophy. Chinese philosophy has gone through different stages of historical development, from the contention of a hundred schools of thought in the pre-Qin period, to the monopoly of Confucian scripture after the Han Dynasty, and in fact Confucianism complements each other, and to Wei-Jin metaphysics is a crystallization of Confucianism; During the Southern and Northern Dynasties, the three religions of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism gradually formed, and Buddhism transmitted from India gradually adapted to the ecological environment of Chinese culture, and became an organic part of Chinese culture by the completion of the process of sinicization in the Sui and Tang Dynasties; Song Mingli absorbed the ideological elements of Buddhism and Taoism, returned to the "Six Classics", and created the "Four Books" system of the Analects Mencius University, and built a neo-Confucianism with "reason, qi, mind, and sex" as the core categories. Therefore, Chinese philosophy not only has its own characteristics, but also has the richness of ideological content at different stages of development and different schools. After 1840, China faced "changes unseen in thousands of years", and Chinese culture entered a period of modern transformation. In 1895, after the defeat of the Sino-Japanese War, the translation of "philosophy" appeared in Huang Zunxian's Japanese National History and Zhengguan Zheng's Prosperous Alarmism (14 volumes). Since then, "philosophy" has promoted the ideological emancipation and reform and opening up of the Chinese nation in the form of a discipline with the "independent spirit and free thought" of philosophy; Chinese and foreign philosophical societies have gathered in China; the exchange and mutual study of Chinese and foreign philosophies has made the development of Chinese philosophy take on a new form; Marxist philosophy has continuously sinicized and produced new theoretical achievements in the process of integrating with China's historical and cultural traditions and China's specific revolution and construction practice. At this time, the compilation of the Chinese and foreign philosophical classics, the first time that Chinese philosophical classics and foreign philosophical classics are gathered in this encyclopedia, is a first in the history of China's prosperous revision of the classics, and is of great significance to the future development of Chinese philosophy and to the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Li Cunshan August 2018(AI翻译)

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