中文 English

图书详情

首页

英文文献

我的书架

当前位置: 首页 > 图书详情

中国脱贫攻坚调研报告.延安篇

Research Reports on the Elimination of Poverty in China—Yan'an City,Shaanxi Province

扶贫 调查报告 延安 英文

2020-05-01

978-7-5203-6858-2

272

13

扫码阅读

  • 内容简介
  • 书籍目录
  • 作者简介
  • 参考文献
内容简介

Humankind has generated copious quantities of material and spiritual wealth.However,poverty persists like a lingering shadow that stymies the pursuit of a better life.As a developing country with the largest population in the world,China knows all too well the acute pain of poverty.Faced with the real problems of abject want,its complicated causes and the high cost of alleviation,China's task of combating poverty is onerous.However,as the Chinese saying goes“No matter how long the journey is,it must start somewhere;no matter how tough the work is,making a start is necessary”.The Chinese people have never abandoned their pursuit of a better and happier life.
Satisfying the population's need for a better life has always been the unswerving goal of the Communist Party of China(CPC).Since the founding of the People Republic of China,the CPC has consistently regarded poverty control as a key national strategy.Its poverty reduction programs and methods of aiding the poor population have been continuously adjusted and improved according to the changes in the distribution of the poor population and the causes and characteristics.People from all ethnic groups in China have been encouraged to engage in unremitting efforts to eradicate poverty.
1.1 Chronicles of the road to poverty alleviation and development with Chinese Characteristics
1949 -1978 can be characterized as the phase of small-scale,relief-based poverty alleviation.Government poverty alleviation funds and material resources mainly served to help the poor address their difficulties in production and living.
1978-1985 was the stage when poverty alleviation was promoted via reforms to the system.The reform of the the rural economy was taken as the main motor to stimulate rural economic activity and to aid the reduction of the number of the rural population living in poverty.
1986 -2000 marked a stage of large-scale development-oriented poverty alleviation.Poverty alleviation became more institutionalized and standardized.The Leading Group for Poverty Alleviation and Development under the State Council was set up to formulate The SevenYear Priority Poverty Alleviation Program.This detailed how to develop and mobilize resources to benefit poor areas according to local conditions,thereby promoting self-development and solving the problems of poverty locally.
2001-2013 was the stagein which whole village poverty alleviation was promoted.The Outline for Poverty Alleviation and Development in China's Rural Areas(2001-2010)was formulated,taking poor villages as the focus of poverty alleviation.Poverty alleviation funds,policies and projects were directly channeled towards poor villages in order to improve their income levels.
2013 to the present has come to be seen as a stage of targeted poverty alleviation.Based on the practical experience of aiding the poor,China has further put forward a new strategy of targeted poverty alleviation.It entails implementing policies based on people and places,the causes and types of poverty,and is focused on targeted assistance to help the poor shed the shackles of poverty.
Through decades of practical implementation,China's poverty alleviation strategy has evolved from a policy-driven“flood irrigation”style of poverty alleviation to that of a“precision drip irrigation”,from the“blood transfusion”poverty approach,mainly reliant upon capital and material inputs,to“stimulating blood cell production”,whereby the poor themselves have a greater capacity for self-development.The total number of people in China classified as poor decreased from 98.99 million at the end of 2012 to 5.51 million at the end of 2019.The poverty headcount ratio decreased from 10.2% to 0.6% of the population.For seven consecutive years,China has reduced the number of those classified as poor by more than 10 million people per annum.The 70 million people lifted out of poverty is equivalent to the total population of a medium-sized country.
In 2017,Jim Yong Kim,the former President of the World Bank,observed:“China's achievements in poverty reduction over the past five years are one of the greatest advents in human history.The global population counted as living in extreme poverty has fallen from 40% to 10%,with the principal contribution coming from China.”
“World Bank President Praises China's Achievements in Poverty Reduction:One of the Greatest Events in Human History”,CCTV.COM,Oct 13,2017,http://news.cctv.com/2017/10/13/ARTIAEKYwoONjEAL8ufEhVAQ171013.shtml.
Under the leadership of the Communist Party of China,the Chinese people have successfully embarked on a road of poverty alleviation and development with Chinese characteristics.
1.2 The experience of the road to poverty alleviation and development with Chinese characteristics
In a nutshell,the road to poverty alleviation and development with Chinese characteristics involves extending the concept of a comprehensively well-off society for all.This accepts the leadership of the CPC as its core and aims to follow the strategy of targeted poverty alleviation.By increasing financial support,mobilizing social forces,promoting genuine efforts and stimulating the innate energy of the poor,a comprehensively well-off life can become a reality for all and the building of a community with a shared and poverty-free future can be realized for all mankind.
Extending a comprehensively well-off society to all is the idea.The hardest and heaviest task in achieving this rests on what is done in rural areas,especially those which are poor.If a comprehensively well-off society cannot be created here then the whole of society cannot be brought up to this standard.“A well-off society is dependent on the well-being of villagers.”China's poverty alleviation campaign will leave no one behind,let alone those in poor areas.Only in this way can a comprehensively well-off society be built for and shared with all the people.
Strengthening leadership guarantees the goal.Under the judicious leadership of the CPC,the overarching design of“four beams and eight pillars”will be enforced.This covers the responsibility system,the policy system and the investment system for poverty alleviation.The management system whereby poverty alleviation is“planned by the Central Government,managed by the provinces,and implemented by the cities and counties”will be adhered to.A timeline will be laid out,military order will be enforced,and the responsibilities of cities,counties,townships and villages at different levels will be clarified to secure a resolute victory in the battle against poverty.
Insisting on targeted poverty alleviation forms the general plan.Targeted poverty alleviation is the key to successful implementation.The“Six Targeted Measures”have been agreed upon,namely targeted support objects,targeted project arrangements,targeted use of funds,targeted measures for each household,targeted allocation of personnel due to villages,and targeted results in poverty alleviation.The“Five Batches”project has been implemented:that is to say lifting one batch of people out of poverty through the development of production,one batch through relocation,one batch through ecological compensation,one batch through education and another batch through guaranteeing social security.The“Four Questions”—who to support,who to provide support,how to support,and how to outlist—needs thorough consideration.By targeting extremely poor areas,extremely poor people and extremely poor families,appropriate measures and resources will be provided to help those concerned secure a better life.
Increasing financial support is the key.Poverty alleviation budgets from the central and provincial governments have been increased.The principal and leading role of government expenditure in poverty alleviation and development is well-established,as is the objective of increased financial spending in tackling poverty alleviation and development,and attracting the sponsorship of social funds.New funding channels for poverty alleviation and development will be actively opened up and these funds increased through multiple routes.
Mobilizing social forces is the bedrock.Poverty alleviation and development are the common responsibility of the entire Party and the entire society.The institutional advantages of socialism should be fully exploited in order to concentrate efforts on major issues,to build a largescale pattern of poverty alleviation in which the government,the market and the society work together,mobilizing and rallying the whole of society to participate extensively form a strong united force to battle against poverty.
Seeking tangible outcomes is the requirement.“The ice of poverty was not formed in a day,so it cannot be melted in one spring.”Strenuous efforts at poverty alleviation are needed.The principles of helping the poor with concrete measures and achieving pragmatic poverty alleviation outcomes will be adhered to.Efforts in this regard should withstand the test of time and be recognized by the general populace.Only by pooling efforts from all quarters can the tough battle against poverty truly be won.
Stimulating innate energy is the basis.Shaking off poverty and becoming affluent depends on ambition.As long as one has ambition and confidence,there is no obstacle that cannot be surmounted.Attention should be paid to helping the poor develop both vision and wisdom,to fully mobilizing the enthusiasm and initiative of the poor people,to guiding them to establish a sense of owner awareness,to carrying forward the spirit of self-reliance,to stimulating the drive and determination to enact changes,to shifting from the attitude of“Others want to see me shake off poverty”to“I want to shake off poverty”,and to changing people's fates through their own efforts.
Building a community with a shared future free of poverty is the vision for mankind.While China is committed to eliminating domestic poverty,it has been actively carrying out“South-South co-operation”,providing assistance to other developing nations without attaching any political preconditions,and supporting and helping the vast majority of developing countries,especially those which are least developed,to eradicate poverty.The Chinese people have always paid close attention to and selflessly assisted the people of those countries who still live in war,turmoil,hunger and poverty.They call on all countries to join hands and make unremitting efforts to build a community of human destiny and common development free from poverty.
1.3 Successful poverty alleviation in Yan'an is a microcosm of China's poverty reduction and sustainable development
Yan'an,a revolutionary holy land,was once covered with yellow sand,being desolate and barren.On many occasions UNESCO referred to it as“a place not suitable for human habitation”.Guided by the road to poverty alleviation and development with Chinese characteristics and illuminated by the Yan'an Spirit,the area has followed the basic strategy of targeted poverty alleviation.It has,moreover,established the working mechanism of“Party Secretaries at Four Levels for Poverty Alleviation”,increased investment in poverty alleviation funds,implemented the“Three Changes”reform of poverty alleviation funds,promoted the“Eight Batches”project,drawn upon advantageous resources to build an apple-growing industry,followed the road of poverty alleviation through ecological development,deepened the“3+X”assistance activities,and stuck firmly to the principle of“both wisdom and support”,thus eradicating entirely the problem of abject poverty that has plagued the people of Yan'an for thousands of years.By the end of 2018,693 poor villages and 195,200 poor residents in Yan'an City had shaken off poverty.On May 7,2019,the Shaanxi Provincial People's Government announced that with Yanchuan and Yichuan counties being now lifted out of poverty,Yan'an City had shaken off poverty and so too had the region as a whole.
Yan'an has successfully journeyed along the road to poverty alleviation and development with Chinese characteristics,and has demonstrated a great miracle within the uphill battle against poverty.Since the turn of the 20th century,the process of poverty reduction in Yan'an has passed through four stages,i.e.1935-1949,1949-1978,1978-2012,and 2012 to the present.The reduction of poverty in Yan'an has brought satisfaction to the people in six areas,namely the alleviation of regional poverty,increased economic strength,improved infrastructure,poor households have a better capacity to shake off poverty,the ability for Yan'an to realize an overall transformation,and enhanced capacity for sustainable development.Behind Yan'an's success in shaking off poverty,there lies seven effective measures,namely:the strong organization of poverty alleviation;solid and targeted poverty alleviation work;effectively integrated poverty alleviation funds,fullscale poverty alleviation through industrial development,appropriate poverty alleviation through ecological development,cohesive poverty alleviation through social causes,and successful poverty alleviation through spiritual improvement.In the process of successfully shaking off poverty in Yan'an,each of the 2 districts,the 1 city and 10 counties under its governance have revealed their own characteristics and demonstrated their own unique approaches to shaking off poverty.
In short,the poverty alleviation in Yan'an is a microcosm of China's historic achievements in that great cause,an epitome of China's targeted poverty alleviation,a representative in miniature of China's green poverty alleviation,and signals a rejuvenation of China's old revolutionary base areas.Yan'an had a glorious past,and will definitely have a better future.Here,the loess lands of the Yellow River gave birth to Chinese civilization.Here,the Chinese revolution progressed from victory to glory.Here,the mountains and the earth have been transformed from yellow to green.Here,the people have bade farewell to poverty and advanced towards happiness.On the road towards rural revitalization,a Red,humanistic,ecological and attractive Yan'an is projecting her beauty and charm across the world.

置顶