中文 English

图书详情

首页

英文文献

我的书架

当前位置: 首页 > 图书详情

《天聖令》與唐宋制度研究

法典 研究 中國 唐代 宋代

2011-03-01

978-7-5004-8699-2

498

6

扫码阅读

  • 内容简介
  • 书籍目录
  • 作者简介
内容简介

1999年,戴建國先生公佈了發現佚失千年的北宋《天聖令》(殘十卷)
本書以下提到《天聖令》均指此殘存十卷的明鈔本《天聖令》殘卷。
的消息和相關論文,在唐宋史學界、唐宋法律史學界引起很大震動。2006年10月,由天一閣博物館和我們中國社會科學院歷史研究所天聖令整理課題組整理的《天一閣藏明鈔本天聖令校證(附唐令復原研究)》(以下簡稱爲《天聖令校證》)正式出版,爲學界提供了《天聖令》影印本和經過初步整理的校録本、清本,同時提供了將《天聖令》中的宋令復原爲唐令後的復原唐令文本,以供學者研究使用。
作爲《天聖令》的整理者,我們在整理過程中就發現《天聖令》具有重要學術價值,值得認真研究,因此整理工作甫一完成,就投入力量對一些特别值得注意的問題進行了初步研究,並將成果集中發表在2006年12月出版的《唐研究》第十二卷上。
接下來,我們整理組成員繼續努力,申請到了中國社會科學院院級重點課題,隨即在兩年的時間内,陸續對《天聖令》進行了更仔細的研究,内容包括:一、《令》這種法律形式與律、格、式、敕的關係等問題。二、對各篇令文中所涉唐宋制度的研究。三、對《天聖令校證》中某些疏漏的再探討。
其中第一方面的研究主要涉及“詔敕”入令,以及《令》與律令格式敕的關係、令文的年代等問題。其中關於《天聖令》所附《唐令》的年代,不僅在學術界,就是在我們整理組成員内部也有不同意見,因此書中各編、章,對此會有不同表述:有的徑稱其爲開元二十五年令,有的則持懷疑態度,僅稱其爲“開元令”或“唐令”。第二方面的研究涉及廣泛,包括驛傳特别是“傳”和“傳送”制度、過所制度、倉庫制度、丁中給糧制度、女醫和醫官入仕制度、休假制度、營繕制度、喪葬制度(包括令和禮的關係)、諸色人制度等。這些制度研究依據的都是《天聖令》提供給我們的新資料,顯示了《天聖令》在史料方面的巨大價值;同時,研究往往涉及“唐”與“宋”或“唐”與“日”制度比較,又充分展示了《天聖令》在研究制度變遷和制度比較方面的巨大價值。第三方面则涉及《天聖令校證》中斷句、標點、詞義理解、條目復原等各類問題。當然,這三個方面並非全能截然分開,有的研究就同時包括其中兩個甚至三個方面。
這樣,經過大家的思考、討論、探究、撰述,以及參加各種學術會議(例如2007年11月在上海參加中國唐史學會第十屆年會;2008年5月在東京參加第五十三屆國際東方學者會議;2008年6月和中國人民大學歷史學院、《唐研究》編委會在北京主辦“天聖令研究”研討會;2008年7月在西安參加“古都長安與隋唐文明”研討會;2009年10月在重慶參加中國唐史學會第十屆年會第二次會議;2009年11月在台灣參加“新史料、新觀點、新視角:《天聖令》國際學術研討會”等)聽取學者意見加以補充修改,我們完成了這部四十餘萬字的研究著作。它可以説是我們課題組研究《天聖令》的一個階段性成果。我們願意將它提供給學術界,以促進《天聖令》乃至相關唐宋制度的進一步深入研究。
需要説明的是,收入本書的文字,許多都在其他刊物或論文集中發表過,但由於參加會議聽取意見,以及吸收課題結項時專家的意見,這些文字在收入本書時又都作了不同程度的修改。這種修改採取兩種方式:一是直接修改原文;二是用“附記”形式將修改意見集中展示,而原文基本不動。自2006年我們發表第一批成果後,學界陸續發表了眾多有關《天聖令》的研究文章。這其中有些文章涉及《天聖令校證》和我們的論文,對這些文章中的意見,我們也都儘量吸收,並體現在本書中。
另外在體例方面要説明的是:
一、本書在提到《天聖令》篇名時,雖基本統一爲“《天聖令·××令》”,但仍有“開元(二十五年)《××令》”、“明本開元《××令》”等不同説法。這是因爲大家對《天聖令》的理解有細微不同;有時也是因文章所述問題,需要強調《令》的某些性質的緣故。
二、引用《天聖令》令文時,注文改雙行小字爲單行小字(比令文正文小一號字)。若其中有作者所加説明文字,放在圓括號内。
三、《天聖令》條文的標注,大致統一爲以下三種
各作者爲撰述目的,另有約定者除外。
:1.令文前半“右並因舊文,以新制參定”即我們稱之爲“宋令”者標爲“宋××”條。2.令文後半“右令不行”即我們稱之爲“唐令”者標爲“唐××”條。3.將前半“宋令”復原爲唐令、並與後半所附“唐令”混排、成爲完整復原“唐令”者,標爲“復原第××”條或“復原唐《××令》第××”條。
本書完成的同時,我們課題組的各位研究者還醞釀了其他一些研究題目。我們還會繼續研究下去,可能不遠的將來就會有第二本、乃至更多的研究著作問世。
研究實踐證明,《天聖令》具有極大研究價值,值得學界持續深入進行研究。我們願意在這一研究潮流中繼續努力工作,與學界所有關心並研究《天聖令》的同仁一起,把《天聖令》的價值充分發掘出來,以推進唐宋史研究的進步。
參加本書撰寫的學者有:宋家鈺、吳麗娛、黃正建、李錦繡、牛來穎、孟彥弘、趙大瑩、程錦。撰寫的具體編、章,參見目録中署名。雖然全書成於眾手,風格各異,但每位撰寫者都非常樂意聽到來自讀者及學界的批評意見。
黃正建
2009年12月

In 1999, Mr. Dai Jianguo published the news and related papers on the discovery of the 3737935 of the "Heavenly Holy Order" (Ten Residual Volumes) of the Northern Song Dynasty, which had been lost for thousands of years, which caused great shock in the historical circles of the Tang and Song Dynasties and the legal history circles of the Tang and Song Dynasties. In October 2006, the Tianyi Pavilion Museum and the Tiansheng Ling Collation Topic Group of the Institute of History of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences officially published the "Tianyi Pavilion Hidden Banknote Tiansheng Ling School Certificate (with Tang Ling Restoration Research)" (hereinafter referred to as "Tiansheng Ling School Certificate"), which provided the academic community with a photocopy of the Tiansheng Order, a preliminarily sorted out proofreading and a clear version, and at the same time provided the original Tang Ling text after the restoration of the Song Ling in the Tiansheng Order to the Tang Order, for scholars to study and use. As the collator of the Heavenly Sacred Order, we found that the Heavenly Sacred Order had important academic value and deserved serious study, so as soon as the collation work was completed, we devoted efforts to conducting preliminary research on some particularly noteworthy issues, and concentrated the results in the twelfth volume of Tang Studies published in December 2006. Next, the members of our collation team continued to work hard and applied for key courses at the academy level of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, and then within two years, they conducted a more detailed study of the "Heavenly Holy Order", including: 1. The relationship between the legal form of the "Order" and the law, character, form, and edict. 2. A study of the Tang and Song dynasty systems mentioned in each decree. 3. Re-discussion of certain omissions in the "Heavenly Holy Order School Certificate". The first aspect of research mainly involves the inclusion of "edicts" in the order, as well as the relationship between the "edict" and the form of the edict, and the age of the edict. There are disagreements not only in the academic circles but also within the members of our collation group regarding the age of the Tang Decree attached to the Heavenly Holy Order, so the various parts and chapters in the book will have different expressions on this: some refer to it as the 25th Decree of the Kaiyuan Dynasty, while others are skeptical and only call it the "Kaiyuan Order" or "Tang Order". The second aspect of research covers a wide range of areas, including inheritance, especially the "transmission" and "transmission" system, the system of passing through, the warehouse system, the system of giving grain in Dingzhong, the system of female doctors and medical officers being enrolled, the vacation system, the camping system, the funeral system (including the relationship between the order and the ceremony), and the system of people of color. These institutional studies are based on new data provided to us by the Heavenly Order, showing the great value of the Heavenly Order in terms of historical materials; At the same time, the research often involves the comparison of the "Tang" and "Song" or "Tang" and "Japanese" systems, which fully demonstrates the great value of the Heavenly Holy Order in studying institutional changes and system comparisons. The third aspect involves various issues such as sentence breaking, punctuation, word understanding, and article restoration in the "Heavenly Holy Order School Certificate". Of course, these three aspects are not completely separated, and some studies include two or even three of them at the same time. In this way, through everyone's thinking, discussion, inquiry, writing, and participation in various academic conferences (such as the 10th Annual Meeting of the Chinese Tang History Society in Shanghai in November 2007; In May 2008, he participated in the 53rd International Conference of Oriental Scholars in Tokyo; In June 2008, together with the School of History of Renmin University of China and the Editorial Board of Tang Studies, he hosted a seminar on "Heavenly Sacred Order" in Beijing; In July 2008, he participated in the seminar "Ancient Capital Chang'an and Sui and Tang Civilization" in Xi'an; In October 2009, he attended the second meeting of the 10th Annual Conference of the Chinese Tang History Society in Chongqing; In November 2009, we participated in the "New Historical Materials, New Perspectives, New Perspectives: International Academic Symposium on the Heavenly Holy Order" in Taiwan, etc.), listening to scholars' opinions and supplementing and revising, and we completed this research work of more than 400,000 words. It can be said to be a stage result of our task group's research on the Heavenly Holy Order. We are willing to provide it to the academic community to promote further in-depth study of the Heavenly Sacred Order and even the related Tang and Song systems. It should be noted that many of the texts included in this book have been published in other journals or paper collections, but due to listening to opinions at conferences and absorbing the opinions of experts at the end of the course, these texts have been revised to varying degrees when included in this book. This modification takes two ways: one is to directly modify the original text; The second is to use the form of "notes" to display the opinions on revision in a centralized manner, while the original text is basically unchanged. Since we published our first results in 2006, the academic community has published numerous research articles on the Heavenly Sacred Order. Some of these articles deal with the Heavenly Order Certificates and our papers, and we have tried to absorb the opinions in these articles and reflect them in this book. In addition, in terms of style, it should be noted that: First, when this book mentions the title of the "Heavenly Holy Order", although it is basically unified as "Heavenly Sacred Order ×× Order", there are still different expressions such as "Kaiyuan (25) "×× Order", "Ming Ben Kaiyuan "×× Order", and so on. This is because everyone's understanding of the Heavenly Order is slightly different; Sometimes, it is also because of the problems mentioned in the article that it is necessary to emphasize certain nature of the Order. 2. When quoting the text of the Heavenly Holy Order, the text of the note is changed to a single-line small print (one character smaller than the text of the text). If there is text added by the author, it is enclosed in parentheses. 3. The annotations of the articles of the "Heavenly Sacred Order" are roughly unified into the following three 3737936: 1. The first half of the Decree is "right and because of the old text, with a new reference", that is, those we call the "Song Order" are marked with the "Song ××" article. 2. In the second half of the decree, "Right Order does not work", that is, what we call "Tang Order" is marked with "Tang ××" article. 3. Those who restore the first half of the "Song Order" as the Tang Order, and mix it with the attached "Tang Order" in the second half, and become a complete restoration of the "Tang Order", shall be marked as "Restoration of the Tang Order" Article ××" or "Restoration of the Tang Dynasty ×× Order Article ××". At the same time as this book was completed, the researchers in our subject group also developed other research topics. We will continue to study, and it may not be so far that a second or more research book will come out. Research practice has proved that the Heavenly Holy Order has great research value and is worthy of continuous and in-depth research by the academic community. We are willing to continue to work hard in this research trend, and work with all colleagues in the academic community who care about and study the Heavenly Holy Order to fully explore the value of the Heavenly Holy Order to promote the progress of the study of Tang and Song history. Scholars who participated in the writing of this book were: Song Jiajiao, Wu Lihuan, Huang Zhengjian, Li Jinxiu, Niu Laiying, Meng Yanhong, Zhao Daying, and Cheng Jin. For the specific compilation and chapter of the writing, see the signature in the Head. Although the book has been written in a variety of styles, each author is very happy to hear critical opinions from readers and academics. Huang Zhengjian, December 2009(AI翻译)

置顶