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大数据时代中国政府信息共享机制研究

Study on Mechanism of Chinese Government Information Sharing Under the Era of Big Data

吴昊[著]

电子政务 信息资源 资源共享 研究 中国

2020-12-01

978-7-5203-7604-4

211

50

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  • 内容简介
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内容简介

本书运用管理学、统计学、计算机网络等学科知识,系统梳理了大数据时代政府信息共享的理论基础以及大数据与政府信息共享之间的逻辑关系。深入介绍了中国政府信息共享机制的发展历程、现存问题及成因,并详细梳理了美国、英国、新加坡政府信息共享的发展历程、实践操作及有效经验。借此全面论证了信息共享机制的结构设计:顶层设计、数据基础、平台建构、结构蓝图。规划了信息共享机制的实现路径:激励路径、制约路径、保障路径,最大程度地实现政府“善治”目标。
本书不仅是基于大数据时代下的事实规范研究,同时也是基于公共治理与公共政策理论、统计学与电子政务等学科的交叉研究,旨在通过对时代背景的个性分析,找寻一条适合中国政府信息共享的独特道路,以服务于服务型政府的建设、公共管理效率的提升和更高效能的产出。
政府信息共享即政府掌握行政权力、行使公共管理职能、组织自身制作所产生或者在社会公共管理过程中所收集的信息,在维持社会正常生活秩序、个人生存条件以及发展需要的前提下,给予相关社会组织或公民个体分享部分信息的行为。政府信息共享不仅是消除“信息孤岛”效应的实际需要,也是适应电子政务建设的内在要求。政府信息共享机制实现包含理念层、结构层与操作层三个逻辑层级,同时大数据时代为该机制的实现提供了宏观背景变迁和微观工具变迁,从而使得大数据时代下中国政府信息共享机制的实现变得可行。因此,从大数据时代的特征出发,以信息为基础、以共享为方式、以机制为依托,势必为新时期服务型政府的建构、“善治”使命的达成提供了绝佳的路径。
中国政府信息共享经历了起步、过渡和全新三大阶段,在政策法规、信息收集、平台建设和地方践行等方面都取得了显著成效,但同时也暴露出了政府信息共享的共识尚未达成、平台建设滞后、安全隐患频出、障碍因素多发四大问题,究其原因,是利益纠葛、标准分歧、监管缺位和从业人员共享意识淡薄四重因素交织的结果。
国外先行先试的实践表明,应该以美国、英国、新加坡为借鉴,将“智慧国”等开放共享理念作为政府工作基点,以机构设计为依托,以大数据人才、财政专项资金或激励基金为保障,以法律法规完善为制约,从而加快推进政府信息共享机制的实现。
大数据时代下政府信息共享是一个系统工程,其机制建设理念是先导,是功能的体现与发挥的基础。如果政府信息共享这一议题是一辆行驶在公共事业管理道路上的汽车,那么自我发展理念是动力系统,自我约束理念则是控制系统,二者唯有协同配合才能保障这项议题的快速推进和健康发展。
大数据时代下政府信息共享机制的结构设计应当从四个角度入手,即顶层设计、信息获取、平台建构与蓝图规划。其中顶层设计包括前提条件的达成、基本原则的坚持和时代观念的树立;政府信息共享的信息获取及数据处理有多种方式和手段,常见的数据处理方式有最小值—最大值规范化、标准化、十进制正规化和数值型数据的离散化四种;而平台建设则是以多媒体动画信息和多工具的动画信息为主要展示方式,同时与多手段的共享平台相配套;蓝图规划则是集“一网”平台“‘一号’式电子证照互认共享机制”和“‘一号’‘一窗’办理的政务服务机制”于一体的“三一”式信息共享业务架构。
对于大数据时代下政府信息共享的实务来讲,理念诠释是前提,结构设计是基础,有序运行是关键,“三位一体”统一于机制。如何保障“有序运行”这一关键,可以有三大路径:一是激励路径,二是制约路径,三是保障路径,三者分工不同,激励旨在调动共享主体的积极性,制约旨在保证共享活动有序化和规范化,而保障旨在为管理活动提供物质和精神条件。三者相辅相成,不可分割,共同为政府信息共享机制的有序运行保驾护航。

This book uses the knowledge of management, statistics, computer networks and other disciplines to systematically sort out the theoretical basis of government information sharing in the era of big data and the logical relationship between big data and government information sharing. The development history, existing problems and causes of the Chinese government's information sharing mechanism were introduced in depth, and the development process, practical operation and effective experience of government information sharing in the United States, the United Kingdom and Singapore were sorted out in detail. The structural design of the information sharing mechanism is comprehensively demonstrated: top-level design, data foundation, platform construction, and structural blueprint. The implementation path of the information sharing mechanism is planned: incentive path, constraint path, guarantee path, and the goal of "good governance" of the government is maximized. This book is not only based on the research of facts and norms in the era of big data, but also based on the interdisciplinary research of public governance and public policy theory, statistics and e-government, aiming to find a unique path suitable for the Chinese government's information sharing through personality analysis of the background of the times, so as to serve the construction of service-oriented government, the improvement of public management efficiency and more efficient output. Government information sharing refers to the act of sharing part of the information produced by the government holding administrative power, exercising public management functions, organizing its own production or collected in the course of social public management, and giving relevant social organizations or individual citizens some information on the premise of maintaining normal social life order, personal living conditions, and development needs. Government information sharing is not only the actual need to eliminate the "information island" effect, but also the inherent requirement to adapt to the construction of e-government. The implementation of the government information sharing mechanism includes three logical layers: concept layer, structure layer and operation layer, and the era of big data provides macro background changes and micro tool changes for the realization of this mechanism, so as to make the realization of the Chinese government information sharing mechanism feasible in the era of big data. Therefore, starting from the characteristics of the era of big data, information-based, sharing and mechanism-based is bound to provide an excellent path for the construction of service-oriented government and the realization of the mission of "good governance" in the new era. The Chinese government's information sharing has gone through three major stages: start-up, transition and brand-new, and has achieved remarkable results in policies and regulations, information collection, platform construction and local practice, but at the same time, it has also exposed the four major problems of government information sharing that have not yet been reached, platform construction lagging behind, frequent security risks, and frequent obstacles. The practice of foreign pilot projects shows that the United States, the United Kingdom, and Singapore should be used as a reference, and the concept of open sharing such as "smart country" should be taken as the basis for government work, relying on institutional design, guaranteeing big data talents, special financial funds or incentive funds, and taking the improvement of laws and regulations as constraints, so as to accelerate the realization of government information sharing mechanism. In the era of big data, government information sharing is a systematic project, and its mechanism construction concept is the forerunner and the basis for the embodiment and play of functions. If the topic of government information sharing is a car driving on the road of public utility management, then the concept of self-development is the power system, and the concept of self-restraint is the control system, and only by working together can the rapid progress and healthy development of this topic be guaranteed. In the era of big data, the structural design of the government information sharing mechanism should start from four perspectives, namely, top-level design, information acquisition, platform construction and blueprint planning. Among them, the top-level design includes the achievement of preconditions, the adherence to basic principles and the establishment of the concept of the times; There are many ways and means of information acquisition and data processing for government information sharing, and the common data processing methods include minimum-maximum normalization, standardization, decimal regularization and discretization of numerical data; The platform construction is based on multimedia animation information and multi-tool animation information as the main display method, and at the same time supporting the multi-means sharing platform; The blueprint planning is a "three-one" information sharing business architecture that integrates the "one-network" platform, "'No. 1' electronic license mutual recognition and sharing mechanism" and "'No. 1' and 'one-window' government service mechanism". For the practice of government information sharing in the era of big data, concept interpretation is the premise, structural design is the foundation, orderly operation is the key, and the "trinity" is unified in the mechanism. How to ensure the key of "orderly operation" can have three major paths: one is the incentive path, the second is the constraint path, and the third is the guarantee path, the three have different division of labor, the incentive aims to mobilize the enthusiasm of the sharing subject, the constraint aims to ensure the orderly and standardized sharing activities, and the guarantee aims to provide material and spiritual conditions for management activities. The three complement each other and are inseparable, jointly escorting the orderly operation of the government information sharing mechanism.(AI翻译)

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