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有闻必录:一个中国新闻口号的兴衰

操瑞青[著]

新闻工作 研究 中国 近代

2019-11-01

978-7-5203-5780-7

362

15

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  • 内容简介
  • 书籍目录
  • 作者简介
  • 参考文献
内容简介

“有闻必录”是横贯晚清民国报界极具感召力的新闻口号,它自1870年代被《申报》引入报刊之后,便长期盘踞在新闻界的话语舞台上,堪称中国近现代报刊史上知名度最高的口号。然而,历史上风行一时的“有闻必录”却给今人留下了种种困惑:(1)该口号从何而来,它有着哪些具体内涵,其发展演进宏观历程究竟是怎样的?(2)对中国新闻界来说,这样一个口号的存在,到底意味着什么,其在历史语境中的必要性与合理性到底在哪里?(3)这样一个在实践操作中有悖常理的新闻认知,为何会在中国新闻界兴起,又为何能够有着绵延长久的生命力?
循着“新文化史”的宏观取向,借助历史文献、话语分析等研究办法,本书试图从整体上勾勒“有闻必录”口号的演进脉络。本书之重心,就是要在具体的历史语境中揭露该口号的兴衰动因,进而回答上述几点困惑。
本书的主体内容共六章,以时间为线索展开了叙述。前三章主要考察了“有闻必录”在报界出现、扩散与风行的兴起历程,后三章则探讨了该口号被质疑、坚守乃至被抛弃的衰退经过。就兴起阶段而言,“有闻必录”的出现与《申报》的商业诉求密不可分,它形塑了新式报刊在新闻活动中的“有闻”优势;此话语优势,在“史家记事”等古典文化传统的阐释影响下,逐步具备了正当地位,被更多的报刊接受;20世纪初,在新闻界的管控背景下,“有闻必录”成为了新闻人反抗“不录”管控的“必录”抗争话语,进而风行了整个新闻行业。就衰退阶段而言,“五四”时期知识精英站在西方新闻理念等思潮下的集体反思首次强烈冲击了该口号存在的正当性基础,精英话语开始呼唤新的活动准则;面对此景,新闻从业者虽开始了自我反思,却也因政界的打压与新闻活动的分化等现实因素的存在,始终对其不乏坚守;待到1940年代前后,在战时的新闻动员与政党新闻业的报业改造过程中,新闻活动渐渐形塑了新的行为规则,“有闻必录”存在的合理性因素全然丧失,成为了一个在批判中被不断言说的口号。
在此基础上,本书表示,“有闻必录”应当被视为一个形塑中国新闻活动边界的本土话语,有着独特的历史价值。该口号讨论的“闻”与“录”话题,触及了新闻活动中关于信息采集与发布这一根本的边界问题,其兴衰历程展现了中国新闻业对于“如何从事新闻工作”的自我思考。中国传统文化元素与本土报业实践语境的融入,使得这一颇具“地方感”的行业话语参与到了新闻活动的边界塑造中,影响了中国新闻业的面貌呈现。此外,时人在历史语境中对“闻”与“录”关系命题的回答,将为我们重新审视当下新闻活动及其边界问题提供有益启发。
关键词:“有闻必录”;口号;兴衰;新闻活动;中国新闻业
Abstract
“You Wen Bi Lu”is an appealing catchword overwhelming the press industry in the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China.After it was introduced into the press of Shun Pao in 1870s,it had been entrenched in the discourse arena of the press sector,which can be said to be the catchword enjoying highest popularity in the newspaper history of the modern time of China.However,“You Wen Bi Lu”being all the rage in the history still confuses people in several aspects:(1)where is the origin of this catchword? What is its specific connotation? How about its macro evolution history?(2)What does such a catchword mean for the Chinese sector? What is the necessity and rationality in the historic context?(3)Such a news acknowledgement goes against with the common sense in the practical operation.Why can it emerge in the Chinese news sector? How does it maintain the long lasting vitality?
Along with the macro direction of“New Cultural History”,this research tries to draw the overall evolution path of“You Wen Bi Lu”through historic literature and discourse analysis method.The focus of this book is to interpret the causes for the rise and decline of this catchword in the specific historic context and thus present answer to the above mentioned confusions.
The major content of the research includes 6 chapters,which is illustra ted according to the time links.The first three chapters mainly observe the rising process of emergence,spread and popularization of“You Wen Bi Lu”in the press.The last three chapters discuss the declining process of this catchword being questioned,insisted and given up.In the rising stage,thebook points out that the emergence of“You Wen Bi Lu”is closely related to the commercial pursuit of Shun Pao.It shaped the“You Wen”advantage of the new-type newspapers in the news activities; such a discourse advantage gradually develops the rightful position and was accepted by more journals under the interpretation of the classical cultural tradition of“historical records”; it was till the early 20th century,under the backdrop of government controlling the press,“You Wen Bi Lu”served as the“Bi Lu”discourse of journalists in combating with the“Bu Lu”control and thus overwhelmed the whole industry.In the declining stage,the research believes that the collective retrospection of intellectual elites under the influences of western news philosophy hit the rational foundation of this catchword for the first time.the elite discourse began to call for new activity rules for news; under such a background,the press made self-retrospection,but some of them still insist to such a catchword due to realistic factors of the pressure from political sector and the division of news activities; it was till 1940s,during the process of the newspaper reform among the war-time news mobilization in the political party news industry,news activity gradually shapes new rules for activity.The appropriate factors for the existence of“You Wen Bi Lu”disappeared completely,becoming a catchword mentioned by the criticism.
On the basis of this,thebook expresses that“You Wen Bi Lu”shall be regarded as a“local”discourse shaping the boundary of Chinese news activities and it features distinctive historical value.The“Wen”and ‘Lu”discussed in this catchword touched the fundamental boundary issue concerning information collection and release in the news activity.Its rise and decline process presents the self-retrospection of Chinese news industry on“how to carry out news work”.The integration of Chinese traditional cultural factors and the practical context of local newspaper industry made this“local”industrial discourse participate into the boundary creation for news activities and thus affected the face of Chinese news industry.Besides,the contemporaries' interpretation on“Wen”and“Lu”in the historical context brings beneficial enlightenment on us in reviewing current news activities and boundary issues.
Key Words: “You Wen Bi Lu”; Catchword; Rise and Decline;Journalistic Activities; Chinese Journalism

Since it was introduced into newspapers and periodicals by the "Declaration" in the 1870s, it has long been entrenched in the discourse stage of the press, and can be called the most well-known slogan in the history of modern Chinese newspapers and periodicals. However, the popular "hearsay must be recorded" in history has left people today with various confusions: (1) Where did the slogan come from, what specific connotations does it have, and what is the macro process of its development and evolution? (2) For the Chinese press, what does the existence of such a slogan mean, and where is its necessity and rationality in the historical context? (3) Why did such a perverse journalistic cognition rise in Chinese journalism, and why can it have long-lasting vitality? Following the macro orientation of "new cultural history" and using historical documents, discourse analysis and other research methods, this book attempts to outline the evolution of the slogan "everything must be heard" as a whole. The focus of this book is to expose the dynamics of the rise and fall of this slogan in a specific historical context, and then answer the above puzzles. The main body of the book consists of six chapters, which are narrated with time clues. The first three chapters examine the rise, proliferation, and popularity of the "hearsay" in the press, while the last three explore the decline in which the slogan was questioned, adhered to, and even abandoned. As far as the rise stage is concerned, the emergence of "what must be heard" is inseparable from the commercial appeal of the "declaration", which has shaped the "heard" advantage of new newspapers and periodicals in news activities; Under the influence of the interpretation of classical cultural traditions such as "Shijia Chronicle", this discourse advantage gradually gained a legitimate position and was accepted by more newspapers and periodicals; At the beginning of the 20th century, under the background of the control of the press, "must be recorded" became a "must record" protest discourse for journalists to resist the control of "not recording", and then prevailed in the entire news industry. As far as the decline stage is concerned, the collective reflection of the intellectual elite standing under the Western news concept and other trends of thought during the May Fourth period strongly impacted the legitimacy of the existence of the slogan for the first time, and the elite discourse began to call for new activity norms. In the face of this scene, although journalists have begun to self-reflect, they have always adhered to it due to the existence of practical factors such as political suppression and the differentiation of news activities. Around the 1940s, in the process of wartime news mobilization and the newspaper transformation of party journalism, news activities gradually formed new rules of behavior, and the rationality factor of "what must be heard" was completely lost, and it became a slogan that was constantly spoken in criticism. On this basis, the book argues that "everything must be heard" should be regarded as a local discourse that shapes the boundaries of China's journalistic activities, with unique historical value. The topics discussed in this slogan "hear" and "record" touch on the fundamental boundary issue of information collection and dissemination in news activities, and its rise and fall shows the self-thinking of Chinese journalism on "how to engage in journalism". The integration of traditional Chinese cultural elements and the practical context of local newspapers has made this industry discourse with a "sense of place" participate in the shaping of the boundaries of news activities, affecting the presentation of China's journalism. In addition, the answers to the proposition of the relationship between "hearing" and "recording" in the historical context will provide useful inspiration for us to re-examine the current news activities and their boundary issues. Keywords: "everything must be recorded"; Slogan; Rise and fall; public information activities; Abstract"You Wen Bi Lu" is an appealing catchword overwhelming the press industry in the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China.After it was introduced into the press of Shun Pao in 1870s, it had been entrenched in the discourse arena of the press sector,which can be said to be the catchword enjoying highest popularity in the newspaper history of the modern time of China.However,“You Wen Bi Lu”being all the rage in the history still confuses people in several aspects:(1)where is the origin of this catchword? What is its specific connotation? How about its macro evolution history?(2)What does such a catchword mean for the Chinese sector? What is the necessity and rationality in the historic context?(3)Such a news acknowledgement goes against with the common sense in the practical operation. Why can it emerge in the Chinese news sector? How does it maintain the long lasting vitality? Along with the macro direction of“New Cultural History”,this research tries to draw the overall evolution path of“You Wen Bi Lu”through historic literature and discourse analysis method. The focus of this book is to interpret the causes for the rise and decline of this catchword in the specific historic context and thus present answer to the above mentioned confusions. The major content of the research includes 6 chapters,which is illustra ted according to the time links. The first three chapters mainly observe the rising process of emergence,spread and popularization of“You Wen Bi Lu”in the press. The last three chapters discuss the declining process of this catchword being questioned,insisted and given up. In the rising stage,thebook points out that the emergence of“You Wen Bi Lu”is closely related to the commercial pursuit of Shun Pao.It shaped the“You Wen”advantage of the new-type newspapers in the news activities; such a discourse advantage gradually develops the rightful position and was accepted by more journals under the interpretation of the classical cultural tradition of“historical records”; it was till the early 20th century,under the backdrop of government controlling the press,“You Wen Bi Lu”served as the“Bi Lu”discourse of journalists in combating with the“Bu Lu”control and thus overwhelmed the whole industry. In the declining stage,the research believes that the collective retrospection of intellectual elites under the influences of western news philosophy hit the rational foundation of this catchword for the first time.the elite discourse began to call for new activity rules for news; under such a background,the press made self-retrospection,but some of them still insist to such a catchword due to realistic factors of the pressure from political sector and the division of news activities; it was till 1940s,during the process of the newspaper reform among the war-time news mobilization in the political party news industry,news activity gradually shapes new rules for activity. The appropriate factors for the existence of“You Wen Bi Lu”disappeared completely,becoming a catchword mentioned by the criticism. On the basis of this,thebook expresses that“You Wen Bi Lu”shall be regarded as a“local”discourse shaping the boundary of Chinese news activities and it features distinctive historical value. The“Wen”and ‘Lu”discussed in this catchword touched the fundamental boundary issue concerning information collection and release in the news activity. Its rise and decline process presents the self-retrospection of Chinese news industry on“how to carry out news work”. The integration of Chinese traditional cultural factors and the practical context of local newspaper industry made this“local”industrial discourse participate into the boundary creation for news activities and thus affected the face of Chinese news industry. Besides,the contemporaries' interpretation on“Wen”and“Lu”in the historical context brings beneficial enlightenment on us in reviewing current news activities and boundary issues. Key Words: “You Wen Bi Lu”; Catchword; Rise and Decline; Journalistic Activities; Chinese Journalism(AI翻译)

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