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中国人的马基雅弗利主义

汤舒俊[著]

人格心理学 研究 中国 马基雅维里(Machiavelli Niccol 1469-1527) 政治思想

2017-12-01

978-7-5203-1504-3

266

10

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  • 内容简介
  • 书籍目录
  • 作者简介
  • 参考文献
内容简介

今年早春,得知汤舒俊博士主持的国家社会科学基金“社会转型背景下中国人马基雅弗利主义人格的测量、影响及干预研究”(项目批准号:12CSH066)圆满结项,内心默默地为其高兴。汤舒俊是我培养的众多博士生中最早拿到并完成国家社会科学基金的弟子,对他一贯主张“国家基金申请不光要拿得到手,国家基金结题也要拿得出手”的观点我深表认同,他高质量、严要求地主持并完成这样一项国家社会科学基金项目是其学术成长的一个重要里程碑。前不久,汤舒俊博士将自认为“拿得出手”的结项成果电子稿发给我,并请我作序,我欣然应允了。
人是社会中的人,人格研究就是研究社会与文化情境下的人性,通过研究人格、理解人性,我们会进一步了解到人性中的弱点,分析其中的成因,选择合适的途径来优化人格,点燃人性的真、善、美,这是我们做研究的终极目的。“马基雅弗利主义”这样一个冗长且有些拗口的外译词,源于西方,其内涵近似于我们传统文化中的厚黑学,在当今中国社会大转型的背景之下,马基雅弗利主义/厚黑学一度大行其道,现实生活中诸多有失道德底线的事情一再发生,刺痛并麻木着社会公众的良心。作者自2008年博士阶段的学习一开始,就敏锐地捕捉到马基雅弗利主义研究的学术价值与现实意义,作者从浏览当时热播的历史电视连续剧《雍正王朝》《康熙王朝》《乾隆王朝》来增加对帝王之术、御人之道的感性认知开始,查文献、编问卷、做实验,围绕着马基雅弗利主义这一主题进行了近十年的理性探索,取得了系列研究成果,这些成果都让人感受到特有的民族味道和深沉的时代关切。
此专著有如下创新与特色:
第一,立意的人文性。马基雅弗利主义/厚黑学是传统专制文化、隐蔽政治的产物,在当下依法治国、以德治国的建设目标下正在失去存在基础,最终必然会走向消亡。但在当下中国社会历史文化巨大变革的过程中,马基雅弗利主义/厚黑学是一个复杂的存在,人人心中有,个个嘴上无,因为上不得台面,所以人人都避谈讳言,但在现实生活中找熟人、走后门、拉关系等马基雅弗利主义行为却又无处不在,默默地在当下中国社会中发挥着其独特的作用。社会的发展必然促进人类自身的发展,社会的进步也必然促进对真、善、美的追求。正如作者所言,现实需要我们了解、理解、破解马基雅弗利主义/厚黑学,没有破解,了解和理解更像是虚伪的沟通,而有了了解与理解,破解才更有价值、更有可能和更加精确。对待马基雅弗利主义/厚黑学,作者没有以事不关己的旁观者身份漠视它的存在,而是以一种利益攸关者的身份走进它、研究它,因此,作者选择将马基雅弗利主义作为研究的选题,直面人性的弱点,是对当今社会问题的积极回应,是对当下价值追求的现实关切,是对转型时期人的发展的终极关怀。
第二,论证的科学性。作者通过六个子课题来研究马基雅弗利主义,在“描述—解释—预测—控制”这条内在逻辑主线之下自成一体,先研究中国人的马基雅弗利主义人格是“什么”,后研究中国人的马基雅弗利主义人格“怎么测”,再研究中国人的马基雅弗利主义人格“会怎样”,最后研究中国人的马基雅弗利主义人格“怎么办”,各个子课题之间相对独立但又逐次递进,分别探索却又相互呼应。在整个研究过程中综合采用文献分析法、问卷调查法、情景实验法、相关事件电位研究法等科学研究方法,使得整体研究都是基于科学的研究设计和实证数据,整体研究结论真实可信。
第三,研究的本土性。中国人的马基雅弗利主义人格整体研究是放在人格心理学的广阔视角下进行的,但作者清醒地意识到东西方在种族、历史、宗教、社会、文化上的巨大差异,并没有把西方的人格理论、概念和测量工具生搬硬套放在中国人的身上,而是真正地进行了一场由中国人主持、以中国人为被试、在中国文化背景下进行、反映中国人心理与行为的本土化研究,作者在借鉴西方马基雅弗利主义相关研究成果和已有工具的基础上,在中国传统文化的视角下探索进行中国人马基雅弗利主义人格的系列研究,包括质化探索中国历史上社会转型期典型的中国人马基雅弗利主义人格,构建中国人马基雅弗利主义人格的内涵结构并编制问卷,探讨特质与情境因素对中国人马基雅弗利主义行为的影响,剖析两难情境下中国人马基雅弗利主义与道德的冲突,并进一步采用ERP研究来探讨马基雅弗利主义者执行两难任务时的脑机制,最后从中国文化中找出因果报应、道德教化等文化抗体来尝试探讨其对中国人马基雅弗利主义行为的抑制,由此可见这是一个真正的本土化研究,得出了中国本土厚黑人格的独特结构、形成机制及其心理行为后效。
第四,结论的启发性。作者研究发现的很多结论针砭时弊、激浊扬清,对于认知和破解马基雅弗利主义富有建设性和借鉴性。比如“中国人的马基雅弗利主义人格是一个包括性恶推断、手段扭曲、感情冷漠、利益执着的四个维度结构”,“厚黑学/马基雅弗利主义在中国应该限行”,“只有制度之善才能引导人性之善”,“厚德厚道是正道,一味厚黑添烦恼”,“对人性的不同认知是人治与法治的分水岭”,“因果报应观念和道德理想都是马基雅弗利主义的有效抗体,要充分挖掘抑制马基雅弗利主义的宗教民俗基因”,“政治精英在社会转型时期责任重大”等都是一些原创性结果发现,这些结论言简意丰、通俗顺畅、科学规范,对于社会大众更好地认知马基雅弗利主义、对于在社会治理中更好地破解马基雅弗利主义都有很好的建设性参考意见。
总之,在我看来,汤舒俊博士的这本《中国人的马基雅弗利主义》,贯穿着作者对个人健康、社会和谐的人文关怀,立意新颖深刻,学理严谨公允,资料翔实充分,文字流畅通达,是一部严肃而又活泼的学术著作。作为一项能够激发多个学科研究者兴趣并极具现实意义的研究课题,对人性恶的探讨与研究必将继续并繁荣,作者著述的中国人马基雅弗利主义人格研究已成为人性恶在东方文化下的一个很好注解,是很好的研究先导,为其他学者开展相关研究提供了基本认识、基本工具和基本框架,同时也希望作者在国人重读李宗吾、学习厚黑学的热潮中,有更多探讨社会转型下中国人心理与行为变迁的研究,有更好地反映中国人心理与行为的本土化研究成果。
是为序。
郭永玉
2017年5月

In the early spring of this year, I was silently happy to learn that the National Social Science Foundation "Research on the Measurement, Influence and Intervention of Machiavellian Personality in the Context of Social Transformation Chinese in the Context of Social Transformation" (project approval number: 12CSH066) led by Dr. Tang Shujun was successfully completed. Tang Shujun is the first disciple of the many doctoral students I trained to obtain and complete the National Social Science Foundation, and I deeply agree with his consistent view that "the application of the National Fund must not only be obtained, but also the completion of the National Fund project", and his high-quality and strict presided over and completed such a National Social Science Foundation project is an important milestone in his academic growth. Not long ago, Dr. Tang Shujun sent me an electronic draft of the final results that he thought he was "good at hand" and asked me to write the foreword, and I gladly agreed. People are people in society, personality research is to study human nature in social and cultural situations, through the study of personality, understanding human nature, we will further understand the weaknesses in human nature, analyze the causes, choose the appropriate way to optimize personality, ignite the truth, goodness, beauty of human nature, which is the ultimate purpose of our research. In the context of the great transformation of Chinese society today, Machiavellianism/Houhei Studies was once popular, and many things that violated the bottom line of morality in real life have repeatedly occurred, stinging and numbing the conscience of the public. Since the beginning of his doctoral studies in 2008, the author has keenly captured the academic value and practical significance of Machiavellian research, and the author began by browsing the then popular historical TV series "Yongzheng Dynasty", "Kangxi Dynasty" and "Qianlong Dynasty" to increase his perceptual cognition of the art of emperors and the way of imperial people, checked literature, compiled questionnaires, and experiments, conducted nearly ten years of rational exploration around the theme of Machiavellianism, and achieved a series of research results. These achievements make people feel the unique national taste and deep concern of the times. This monograph has the following innovations and characteristics: First, the humanistic nature of the idea. Machiavellianism/Houhei Studies is a product of traditional authoritarian culture and hidden politics, which is losing its foundation for existence under the current goal of governing the country according to law and governing the country with ethics, and will inevitably disappear eventually. However, in the process of great changes in the history and culture of Chinese society at present, Machiavellianism/Thick Black Studies is a complex existence, which everyone has in their hearts, and everyone has nothing on the lips, because they cannot be on the table, so everyone avoids talking and concealing, but in real life, Machiavellian behaviors such as finding acquaintances, going through the back door, and pulling relationships are everywhere, silently playing their unique role in the current Chinese society. The development of society will inevitably promote the development of human beings themselves, and the progress of society will inevitably promote the pursuit of truth, goodness and beauty. As the author says, reality requires us to know, understand, and crack Machiavellianism/thick black learning, without cracking, understanding and understanding is more like false communication, and with knowledge and understanding, cracking is more valuable, more likely, and more accurate. Therefore, the author chooses to take Machiavellianism as the topic of research, facing the weaknesses of human nature, which is a positive response to today's social problems, a realistic concern for the current value pursuit, and the ultimate concern for human development in the transition period. Second, the scientific nature of the argument. The author studies Machiavellian through six sub-topics, which are self-contained under the internal logical main line of "description-explanation-prediction-control", first studying the "what" of the Chinese's Machiavellian personality, then studying the "how to measure" the Chinese's Machiavellian personality, then studying the Chinese's Machiavellian personality "how will it be", and finally studying the Chinese's Machiavellian personality "how", each sub-topic is relatively independent but progressive, exploring separately but echoing each other. In the whole research process, scientific research methods such as literature analysis method, questionnaire survey method, scenario experiment method, and related event potential research method are comprehensively adopted, so that the overall research is based on scientific research design and empirical data, and the overall research conclusion is true and credible. Third, the locality of research. The overall study of Machiavellian personality in Chinese is carried out from a broad perspective of personality psychology, but the author is soberly aware of the huge differences between the East and the West in terms of race, history, religion, society and culture, and does not put Western personality theories, concepts and measurement tools on the Chinese in a rigid way, but really conducts a localized research hosted by Chinese, with Chinese as the subject, carried out in the context of Chinese culture, reflecting Chinese psychology and behavior. On the basis of drawing on the relevant research results and existing tools of Machiavellian in the West, the author explores a series of research on the Chinese Machiavellian personality from the perspective of traditional Chinese culture, including qualitative exploration of the typical Chinese Machiavellian personality in the period of social transition in Chinese history, constructing the connotation structure of Chinese Machiavellian personality and compiling questionnaires, and exploring the influence of trait and situational factors on Chinese Machiavellian behavior. This paper analyzes the conflict between Machiavellianism and morality in Chinese dilemma situation, and further uses ERP research to explore the brain mechanism of Machiavellian when performing dilemma tasks, and finally finds cultural antibodies such as karma and moral indoctrination from Chinese culture to try to explore its inhibition of Machiavellian behavior in Chinese, which shows that this is a real localization study, and the unique structure, formation mechanism and psychological behavior aftereffects of China's local thick black personality are obtained. Fourth, the enlightenment of the conclusions. Many of the conclusions found by the authors are problematic and provocative, and are constructive and instructive for understanding and cracking Machiavellianism. For example, "Chinese's Machiavellian personality is a four-dimensional structure that includes sexual evil inference, distortion of means, emotional indifference, and attachment to interests", "Thick black learning/Machiavellianism should be restricted in China", "Only the goodness of the system can guide the goodness of human nature", "Virtuous and generous is the right way, blindly thick black adds trouble", "Different cognitions of human nature are the watershed between the rule of man and the rule of law", "The concept of karma and moral ideals are effective antibodies to Machiavellianism, It is necessary to fully tap the religious folklore genes that suppress Machiavellianism, "political elites have great responsibilities in the period of social transformation", etc. are some original results, and these conclusions are concise, smooth, scientific and standardized, and have good constructive reference suggestions for the public to better understand Machiavellianism and better crack Machiavellianism in social governance. In short, in my opinion, Dr. Tang Shujun's "Machiavellian Chinese" runs through the author's humanistic care for personal health and social harmony, and is a serious and lively academic work with novel and profound intentions, rigorous and fair academic theory, detailed and sufficient information, and fluent and fluent writing. As a research topic that can stimulate the interest of researchers in multiple disciplines and has great practical significance, the discussion and research of human evil will continue and prosper, and the author's Chinese Machiavellian personality research has become a good annotation of human evil in Eastern culture, is a good research guide, and provides basic understanding, basic tools and basic framework for other scholars to carry out related research, and also hopes that the author will re-read Li Zongwu and learn Houhei in the upsurge of Chinese people. There are more studies on Chinese psychological and behavioral changes under social transformation, and there are localized research results that better reflect Chinese psychology and behavior. is the order. Guo Yongyu, May 2017(AI翻译)

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