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生生之道与圣人气象:北宋五子万物一体论研究

张美宏[著]

古代哲学 研究 中国 宋代

2015-12-01

978-7-5161-6810-3

245

11

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  • 内容简介
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内容简介

“万物一体”是中国古代哲学的一个主题,包含丰富的哲学意蕴。本书将视角锁定于北宋时期的五位哲学家——周敦颐、邵雍、张载和二程,考察他们关注“万物一体”的哲学与哲学史旨趣。在具体取径上,首先回答“万物一体”如何成为一个哲学问题引起“五子”的关注,以此为基点展开他们言说“万物一体”的具体面向,并就不同面向之间的内在关系有所阐发。本书在写作上不仅重视哲学问题的历史性,同时还强调理论阐释的现代性,如果说,尊重历史可以确保问题本身的真实呈现,那么,开放的理论视域无疑可以使中国古代哲学的研究在当下向纵深拓展。

"The unity of all things" is a theme of the philosophy of the Five Sons of the Northern Song Dynasty, which not only indicates a certain unity of all things in heaven and earth in the direction of the Heavenly Taoist View, but also carries the ideal of humanity of "benevolence and love for things" that they aspire to. In terms of theoretical origin, the theory of "the unity of all things" of the five sons of the Northern Song Dynasty is a continuation of the pre-Qin Confucian theory of "the unity of heaven and man". In the pre-Qin Confucianism, although the theory of "the unity of heaven and man" is premised on the idea of the correlation between heaven and man, due to the different biases of the problem, the "unity of heaven and man" can be divided into "unity" in the sense of heavenly Taoism and "unity" in the sense of humanitarianism. As far as these two different meanings of "unity of heaven and man" are concerned, the "unity" in the sense of the Heavenly Taoist view takes the procedural expression of the phenomenon of the Heavenly Dao as the basis for thinking about the inevitability and unity of the endless life of all things in heaven and earth; "Unity" in the sense of humanism is premised on the pan-moral speculation of the phenomenon of heavenly path, aiming to make it clear that the ideal of humanism should have a side of loving others and caring for others in content. Influenced by the duality of the theory of "the unity of heaven and man", the theory of "the unity of all things" was expressed in the five sons of the Northern Song Dynasty as two dimensions: the Taoist view of heaven and the view of humanity. The Taoist view of "the unity of all things" shows the natural correlation and connection between all things in heaven and earth, and in the expression of the Five Sons of the Northern Song Dynasty, this correlation and connection is extended to a kind of process unity. In other words, for the five sons of the Northern Song Dynasty, the possibility of the "oneness of all things" in the Heavenly Taoist view was based on their universal insight into the phenomenon of the endless birth of all things in heaven and earth, and from this perspective, the universal and inevitable birth of all things in heaven and earth has been reduced to a "way of birth" with a dynamic matrix at the ontological level. In the sense that the "way of life" became the ontology, the five sons of the Northern Song Dynasty began a unified search for the birth of all things in heaven and earth. From the standpoint of modern philosophy, the Northern Song Dynasty's Wuzi's exploration of the natural existence of the "way of life" based on the phenomenon of the endless birth of all things in heaven and earth is only an abstract preference for natural laws, that is, starting from the concrete life of all things in heaven and earth, revealing the unity of the process behind these phenomena in a speculative way, which cannot theoretically represent the entire existence of all things. Although it is theoretically limited to construct the "way of life" from the origin of all things in heaven and earth, the five sons of the Northern Song Dynasty also have practical significance in paying attention to the dimension of the heavenly Taoism of "the unity of all things". On the one hand, under the situation of Buddha and old people flourishing at the same time, the ontological dimension of "the oneness of all things" responds to the ontological level of Buddhism and Taoism's rendering of "regeneration" and "immortality", thereby ensuring the legitimacy of Confucianism's active pursuit of the meaning of life on the basis of theory. On the other hand, based on the universality and inevitability of all things in the direction of the Heavenly Taoist View, the five sons of the Northern Song Dynasty developed their universal thinking about the ideal of the concept of humanity. From "Tai Chi" to the "Ren Pole", from "Heavenly Principle" to "Human Reason", from the "Way of Gasification" to "Existential Concern", and Shao Yong's multi-dimensional identification of the relationship between one and many is opened up according to this. The humane dimension of "the oneness of all things" was first manifested in the Wuzi of the Northern Song Dynasty as a kind of benevolent care for those who achieve others. In this kind of care, the self cares for or tolerates others and other things with a universal moral heart, and what is implemented in it is the Confucian value principle of "kinship"-"benevolence"-"love of things". According to the view of the Wuzi of the Northern Song Dynasty, the benevolent care of "the unity of all things" is not only expressed as abstract values, but also condensed in the moral character of the saint's reality. As abstract values, caring for others and others comes from universal value settings, and as the actual moral character of the saint, caring for others and caring for others can be seen in the concrete words and deeds of the saint. In the sense that the "way of the saints" became the "ultimate rule of man", understanding what the saints said and did for others was part of the understanding of the Taoist ideals of the Confucian family of the Five Sons of the Northern Song Dynasty. In addition to the benevolent care of others, the humane dimension of "the oneness of all things" also points to an ideal state of life. Corresponding to the expansion of the "oneness of all things" in the humanistic perspective, the understanding of the Confucian Taoist ideal is no longer limited to the level of caring for others. Due to the intervention of realm theory, it has become the meaning of the title to combine self-care in value care, and then realize the unity of satisfying oneself and caring for others, and it is precisely because of this that the Northern Song Dynasty Wuzi played with "sage weather". Under the premise that "the unity of all things" has become the ideal of life, the five sons of the Northern Song Dynasty believe that practicing the value principle of "benevolence and love for things" has the meaning of satisfying the spiritual needs of the saint, and with the development of the practice activities, the saint presents a calm and self-sufficient atmosphere in spirit. Through a deep understanding of the spiritual temperament of the saints, the five sons of the Northern Song Dynasty enlarged their own spiritual world and changed their understanding of their own mission in life, that is, from the original self-care to the benefit of the world. In this way, practicing the value principle of "benevolence and love for things" has also become necessary for them to meet their own spiritual needs. For the five sons of the Northern Song Dynasty, the above two dimensions of "the unity of all things" are very important and indispensable. Starting from the humane perspective of "the unity of all things", the Five Sons of the Northern Song Dynasty not only established a value ideal for people to be generous and virtuous, but also gave this value ideal itself the meaning of satisfying one's own spiritual needs in the sense of realm theory. Based on the Heavenly Taoist view of "the unity of all things", the Five Sons of the Northern Song Dynasty pushed the Confucian value principle of "benevolence and love for things" to the universal dimension in form, and made it an inevitable choice for self-reflection on the meaning of life in reality. Keywords: the unity of all things, the endless life, the sage meteorology, the five sons of the Northern Song Dynasty, AbstractTheory of one body, which not only indicates a unity of heaven, earth and myriad things in dimension of nature , but also implies one sort of value ideal of love for human beings and all things (Renminaiwu) in dimension of morality (Rentao humanitarian), is a key subject in the philosophy of Wuzi (five great thinkers five sons) who lived in the Northern Song dynasty (Beisong Northern Song). Theoretically speaking,Wuzi's theory of one body can be considered as a continuation of Pre-Qin) Confucian doctrine of unity of heaven and man. The doctrine is based on a correlated meditation on heave and man,but on account of different interest in theory,it can be divided into the unity in dimension of nature and the harmony in dimension of morality. As far as the two different dimensions are concerned,the former is founded on a process description of natural phenomena,in order to reveal the necessity and the unity of of heaven, earth and myriad things, and the later is on the premise of a pan-moral speculation on natural phenomena,to express the aspect of love for him or it. Influenced by the above dual character,Wuzi's theory of one body can be divided into dimension of nature and dimension of morality. Theory of one body in dimension of nature manifests a natural combination among heaven,earth and myriad things,but the combination was described as a unification of progress in Wuzi's opinion. In other word,it is Wuzi's meditation on the ceaseless phenomena of heaven,earth and myriad things that made understanding of theory of one body in dimension of nature possible,and in this dimension, the universal and necessary ceaselessness of heaven, earth and myriad things is reduced to a ceaseless Tao(Shengshengzhidao's way of life)in theory of Benti.In the sense of ceaseless Tao serving as Benti,Wuzi began their thinking on the unity of ceaselessness of heaven,earth and myriad things. From the view of modern philosophy,we can find that it is only an abstract inclination to law of nature for Wuzi to demonstrate the connatural existence of ceaseless Tao,which was thought to be the root cause of the ceaseless phenomena of heaven,earth and myriad things,and in theory it can't represent a great whole which contains all things,except for disclosing a unity of the progress among them in a speculative way. Although it is limited in theory that Wuzi proposed a concept of ceaseless Tao based on ceaseless phenomena of heaven,earth and myriad things,that is not to say,their attention to theory of one body have nothing to do with the realities. On the one hand, under the situation that Buddhism and Taoism are widely acclaimed, Wuzi refuted Buddhist and Taoist excessively exaggerating the idea of rebirth(Zaisheng regeneration) and immortality(Busi immortality) in theory of Benti, and thereby they ensured the legitimacy of Confucian active life style on the foundation; on the other hand,by considering the universality and the necessity model based on views of nature,Wuzi shown the possibility of constructing the universality of moral law. It is just in this sense that they put forward the doctrine of Taiji (太吉)-Renji (人極), the doctrine of the combination between the one and the many, the doctrine of transformative Wuzi's theory of one body in dimension of morality firstly implies a value concern of love for the other,in which oneself acquires a virtue of love for the other by his moral heart,and it is Confucian value principles of love for close relatives,human beings and things(Qinqin-Renmin-Aiwu Affectionate-benevolent-love) that impenetrate in that concern. According to Wuzi's viewpoint,the concern of love for the other was both an abstract value idea and a sort of sages' moral character in reality. As an abstract value idea,it was from value programming,and as a sort of sages'moral character in reality,it was thought to be embodied in sages'concrete words and deeds.in the sense of sages'Tao (Shengre nzhidao The Way of the Sage) serving as the highest standard to all the people (Renzhijize), realizing what sages had said or done for the other became one part for Wuzi to understand Confucian moral ideal. Apart from the concern of love for the other,theory of one body in dimension of morality also denotes one sort of ideal realm of life of one body in dimension of morality,understanding Confucian moral ideal is no longer limited to the level of love for the other. Because of the intervention of the realm (Jingjielun), how to unify love for the other and satisfying self became another part for Wuzi to understand Confucian moral ideal, too, and that is the only reason why Wuzi were interested in chewing over sages'style(Shengrenqixiang sage meteorology). On the premise of theory of one body serving as life ideal,Wuzi thought that practising the value idea of love for human beings and all things could met spiritual need for sages,and with such a practice done,they also thought that sages themselves had achieved a realm in which they were very satisfied as well as very happy. By the means of pondering over sages' style,Wuzi enlarged their own spiritual world,and namely they eventually developed their life mission into a love for all in the world(Jianjitianxia from a love only for themselves (Dushanqishen alone). In this sense,practising the value ideal of love for human beings and all things became necessary for Wuzi to meet their own spiritual demand. For Wuzi,the above two dimensions of theory of one body were both very important and very indispensable. By deeply thinking on theory of one body in dimension of morality, Wuzi not only constructed a sort of value ideal of relieving the people with liberal aids(Boshijizhong Bo Shi Ji Zhong) and holding all things with great virtue (Houdezaiwu Houdezaiwu) for man in the field of moral philosophy, but also endowed this sort of value ideal with an implication of meeting the demand of self-spirit in the sense of realm. On the basis of theory of one body in natural dimension,Wuzi also endowed Confucian value ideal of love for human beings and all things with universality in form,and what'more,they made it become a necessary choice to think over the meaning of their own life in reality. Key words:theory of one body; ceaseless Tao; sages' style; Wuzi in the Northern Song dynasty; love for human beings and all things(AI翻译)

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