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分散与融合:数字报业研究

石磊[著]

数字技术 应用 报纸 新闻事业 研究

2010-07-01

978-7-5004-8991-7

251

23

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内容简介

众所周知,以传播媒介的巨大变革为依据,人类传播历经了上古的口头传播、中古的手写传播、近代的印刷传播,直至现代的电子传播四个主要历史阶段,而四个历史阶段的不断更替、四种传播媒介的依次更新,一定程度上是人类渴望扩大传播范围、提高传播效率、满足人们多元信息需求的体现。
尽管从历史发展过程来看人类传播经历了以上四个阶段,但是作为每一阶段主角的口语、文字、印刷、电子四种传播媒介的关系并不是相互排斥而是相互补充的,并不是前后相继而是前后相迭的。一方面,它们各行其是、特立独行;另一方面,它们又各有所长,优势互补,共同成就了人类传播。在这其中,以文字的逻辑、深刻为特色的报刊杂志,以声音的平易浅显为风格的广播,以兼具声画优势的电视为代表的传统媒体,与以海量、及时和互动为特点的网络为代表的新媒体一起,组成了大众传播大家庭。
然而,自20世纪90年代以来,随着数字化、计算机网络和虚拟现实等技术的不断进步,以及这些技术在传播、通信等领域的全方位渗透与应用,传播媒介经历着巨大变革,传统媒介正在冲破自身局限,原本泾渭分明的几种媒介之间的界限开始打破并悄然兴起一场新的融合,人类传播已进入媒介融合时代,也被称为“跨媒体时代”或“全媒体时代”。
“媒介融合”(media convergence)这一概念最早来自美国麻省理工学院(MIT)的伊契尔 ·索勒 ·普尔(Ithiel De Sola Pool)和他于1983年在其《自由的技术》(Technologies of Freedom)中提出的“传播形态融合”(the convergence of modes)。他认为,数码电子科技的发展是导致历来泾渭分明的传播形态聚合的原因,媒介融合就是各种媒介呈现出一体化多功能的发展趋势,从根本上讲,媒介融合是不同技术的结合,是两种或更多技术融合后形成的某种传播技术,由融合产生的新传播技术和新媒介的功能大于原先各部分的总和。作为一种媒体发展的现状和趋势,媒介融合是国际化、全球化浪潮下传媒求得生存的新产物,是历来泾渭分明的几种不同传播技术为了实现传播一体化、多功能的新手段,是促成报纸、广播、电视、互联网和手机等的采编作业有效结合以实现资源共享、集中处理,进而达成节约生产成本、实现规模效应目标的新模式。
按照美国西北大学教授李奇·高登(Rich Gordon)于2003年针对美国当时的媒介融合状况就做出的归纳,媒介融合主要呈现以下几个方面的融合:所有权融合(ownership convergence)、策略性融合(tactical convergence)、结构性融合(structural convergence)、信息采集融合(information-gathering convergence)和新闻表达融合(storytelling or presentation convergence)
蔡雯:《从“超级记者”到“超级团队”——西方媒体“融合新闻的实践和理论”》,载《中国记者》2007年第1期。
。同时,在到达媒介完全融合的过程中,必然要经历以下几个发展阶段:最初是依靠行政力量的组织的融合,然后是在市场作用下以集团兼并为代表的资本融合,进而再到传播手段的融合,这是一种大型传媒集团的不同媒介的传播手段在同一大平台上进行整合,实施这些媒介之间的内容相互推销和资源共享的融合,最后才是媒介融合的最高阶段,媒介形态的融合,即在数字技术和网络传播推动下产生的新媒介类型——融合媒介,这种媒介融合了几种甚至全部媒体的优点。
我们常说的“跨媒体”和“全媒体”,可被视为“媒介融合”过程中的不同阶段,其中,“跨媒体”之“跨”,凸显了跨媒体更多体现为一种媒介融合行为,而“全媒体”之“全”,则在一定程度上反映了全媒体更多作为一种媒介融合状态。
所谓“跨媒体”,是指横跨平面媒体(报纸、杂志、图书、户外广告)、立体媒体(广播、电视、电影)和网络媒体的三维平台组合,其核心在于不同媒体形式之间的“横跨”组合,它强调媒体外在形式之间的一种组合,或许通过行政力量使然,或者通过市场作用使然,处于媒介融合过程中的初级阶段。而“全媒体”是指综合运用各种表现形式,如文、图、声、光、电来全方位、立体地展示传播内容,同时通过文字、声像、网络、通信等传播手段来传输的一种新的传输形态。作为一种媒介融合状态,它继“跨媒体”、“多媒体”之后逐步衍生而成,是媒介融合的高级阶段,是人类现在掌握的信息流手段的最大化集成者,体现的不是“跨媒体”的简单连接,而是全方位融合——网络媒体与传统媒体乃至通信的全面互动、网络媒体之间的全面互补、网络媒体自身的全面互融。
可以看出,三个概念中,“媒介融合”的含义最为广泛,包含的内容最多,“全媒体”所描述的是媒介融合发展过程中的高级阶段,它侧重于不同媒体在共用一套机构与人员的情况下进行传播手段融合、内容互销和资源共享。然而,我们国家当前的传媒还处于较初级的阶段,基本经历了行政力量促进融合,逐步在由市场作用促进融合走向传播手段的融合,所以,三个概念中,用“跨媒体”来描述我们的传媒实际,是更为贴切和妥当的,这也是本丛书采用“跨媒体研究丛书”的根本缘由。
无论是作为发展趋势的“媒介融合”,还是作为生存状态的“跨媒体”,还是作为阶段目标的“全媒体”,它们都揭示了当下传媒发展和新闻传播的时代语境。清楚认识当下传媒语境及其特点,无疑对传媒经营管理、新闻采写编排等传媒实践有着非常必要和重要的意义,对传媒人提高自身职业素养而言,也是异常关键的。因此,媒介融合语境下的传媒文化与传播实践,为我们的跨媒体研究提供了极好的契机,这不仅鼓励我们努力探索研究,更成为我们萌生出版此丛书念头的最原始动力。
典盛传播、环球活动网总裁欧阳国忠2007年8月在接受《北方传媒研究》编辑部采访在谈及新媒体时代特点时,进行了如下概述:新媒体时代传媒,主要会呈现出以下四个方面的特点,内容生成的“即时性”——越来越多的内容生成和传播的过程正在重合起来、内容获取的“即地性”——人们可以在任何地方以任何手段获取即时的信息、内容传播的“互动性”——内容的接收方对接收的内容有更多的选择权、广告投放的“定向性”——广告商可以更有效地针对个人目标客户投放广告。
2007年8月,典盛传播、环球活动网总裁欧阳国忠接受《北方传媒研究》编辑部的电子邮件采访,文字整理为《新媒体环境下的电视产业运营》一文,刊发于《北方传媒研究》2007年第4期。
可以说,这既是媒介融合时代的传播特点,更是跨媒体时代的传媒目标。如何能实现传媒自身、受众、广告商三方面的共赢,不仅是传媒业界人士需要考虑的,更是传媒学术界人士需要努力探索研究的命题。
作为四川大学“211工程”重点建设学科项目的成果,“跨媒体研究丛书”所涵盖的研究范围主要包含有:
(1)“跨媒体”或“媒介融合”对象研究和过程研究。如对媒介融合过程中所涉及的内容融合与渠道融合、资本融合与结构融合、技术融合与生产融合以及融合过程中所遭遇的政策规制和行业壁垒等问题的研究。
(2)“跨媒体”或“媒介融合”对各项传媒实践的影响研究和各项传媒实践相应的对策研究。如对跨媒体环境下的新闻采编研究,如对报业数字化转型的研究等等。
(3)“跨媒体”或“媒介融合”与其他领域的关系研究,体现为媒介融合与政治学、经济学、文化学、社会学和心理学等学科的交叉研究。如在跨媒体传播格局中的政府信息传播研究、媒介融合背景下的传媒文化研究和受众心理研究等。
无论是哪一类型的研究,本丛书都强调对传媒当下现实的针对性,对传媒历史经验教训的总结性,和对传媒未来发展的指导性和预测性。
本期拟出版的八本专著,包括蒋晓丽等的《奇观与全景——传媒文化新论》、石磊的《分散与融合——报业数字化转型研究》、王积龙的《抗争与绿化——环境新闻学在西方的起源、理论与实践》、刘肖的《理智与偏见——当代西方涉华国际舆论研究》、侯宏虹的《颠覆与重建——博客主流化研究》、张放的《虚幻与真实——网络人际传播中的印象形成研究》、张杰的《变革与回归——中国政府网络信息传播研究》和彭虹的《涌现与互动——网络社会的传播视角》。每一本书都是作者对跨媒体、对媒介融合所做出的探索和研究,都凝结了作者的努力和心血,为理性建构媒介现实,深入认识媒介未来,不遗余力地思考和探索。
在这套丛书出版之际,衷心感谢国内新闻传播学界的各位专家、学者对我们的研究始终如一的关注和支持;衷心感谢德胜(苏州)洋楼有限公司一直以来的鼎力资助;也衷心感谢中国社会科学出版社的任明老师以及所有为这套丛书的出版付出辛勤劳动的朋友和同事们。
“路漫漫其修远兮,吾将上下而求索”。虽然仅凭以上的几本书,难以支撑起整个“跨媒体研究”的框架,但是我们希望,本丛书的出版能在传媒学界和业界起到一个抛砖引玉的作用,同时我们也愿意在未来的传媒研究进程中继续将之充实和延展,为有效的认识和指导传媒实践贡献我们的绵薄之力。
是为序。
聂圣哲 蒋晓丽
2010年春

As we all know, based on the great changes in the communication media, human communication has gone through four main historical stages: oral communication in ancient times, handwritten communication in the Middle Ages, printing communication in modern times, and electronic communication in modern times, and the continuous replacement of the four historical stages and the sequential update of the four communication media are, to a certain extent, the embodiment of human desire to expand the scope of communication, improve communication efficiency, and meet people's diversified information needs. Although human communication has gone through the above four stages from the perspective of historical development, the relationship between the four communication media, which are the protagonists of each stage, is not mutually exclusive but complementary, not successive but overlapping. On the one hand, they go their separate ways and are unique; On the other hand, they each have their own strengths and complementary advantages, and together they have achieved human communication. Among them, newspapers and magazines characterized by the logic and profundity of words, broadcasting in the style of easy and simple sound, traditional media represented by television with the advantages of sound and painting, and new media represented by the massive, timely and interactive network have formed a big family of mass communication. However, since the 90s of the 20th century, with the continuous advancement of digitalization, computer networks and virtual reality technologies, as well as the all-round penetration and application of these technologies in the fields of communication and communication, the communication media has undergone tremendous changes, traditional media are breaking through their own limitations, the boundaries between the originally distinct several media began to break and quietly rise a new integration, human communication has entered the era of media integration, also known as the "cross-media era" or "all-media era". The concept of "media convergence" first came from Ithiel De Sola Pool of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and his 1983 book "The convergence of modes." He believes that the development of digital electronic technology is the reason for the convergence of communication forms that have always been clear, media integration is the development trend of integration and multi-function of various media, fundamentally speaking, media integration is the combination of different technologies, is a certain communication technology formed after the integration of two or more technologies, the function of new communication technology and new media produced by integration is greater than the sum of the original parts. As a kind of current situation and trend of media development, media integration is a new product of media survival under the wave of internationalization and globalization, a new means to achieve communication integration and multi-function with several different communication technologies that have always been clearly distinguished, and a new mode to promote the effective combination of newspapers, radio, television, Internet and mobile phones to achieve resource sharing and centralized processing, so as to achieve the goal of saving production costs and achieving scale effects. According to Northwestern University professor Rich Gordon (Rich Gordon) in 2003 for the state of media integration in the United States at that time, media convergence mainly presents the following aspects of integration: ownership convergence, tactical convergence, structural convergence, Information-gathering convergence and storytelling or presentation convergence 2879263. At the same time, in the process of reaching the complete integration of media, it is necessary to go through the following stages of development: initially the integration of organizations relying on administrative forces, then the integration of capital represented by group mergers under the role of the market, and then the integration of communication means, which is the integration of different media means of large media groups on the same large platform, the implementation of the integration of content mutual promotion and resource sharing between these media, and finally the highest stage of media integration, the integration of media forms, That is, the new type of media driven by digital technology and online communication, the fusion media, which combines the advantages of several or even all of the media. The "transmedia" and "omnimedia" we often talk about can be regarded as different stages in the process of "media integration", among which, the "trans" of "cross-media" highlights that cross-media is more embodied in a media integration behavior, and the "all-media" of "all-media" reflects to a certain extent that all-media is more of a media integration state. The so-called "cross-media" refers to the three-dimensional platform combination across print media (newspapers, magazines, books, outdoor advertising), three-dimensional media (radio, television, film) and online media, the core of which lies in the "cross" combination between different media forms, which emphasizes a combination between external forms of media, perhaps through administrative forces, or through market effects, in the initial stage of media integration process. "All-media" refers to a new transmission form that comprehensively uses various forms of expression, such as text, graphics, sound, light, and electricity, to display communication content in an all-round and three-dimensional way, and at the same time transmits through text, sound and image, network, communication and other communication means. As a state of media integration, it is gradually derived after "cross-media" and "multimedia", which is an advanced stage of media integration, and is the maximum integrator of the information flow means that human beings now master, reflecting not a simple connection of "cross-media", but an all-round integration - the comprehensive interaction between network media and traditional media and even communication, the comprehensive complementarity between network media, and the comprehensive mutual integration of network media itself. It can be seen that among the three concepts, "media integration" has the broadest meaning and contains the most content, and "omni-media" describes the advanced stage in the development process of media integration, which focuses on the integration of communication means, content mutual marketing and resource sharing of different media in the sharing of a set of institutions and personnel. However, the current media in our country is still in a relatively early stage, basically experienced the promotion of integration by administrative forces, and gradually promoted integration from the role of the market to the integration of communication means, so among the three concepts, it is more appropriate and appropriate to use "cross-media" to describe our media reality, which is also the fundamental reason why this series adopts the "cross-media research series". Whether it is "media integration" as a development trend, "cross-media" as a state of survival, or "all-media" as a stage goal, they all reveal the current era context of media development and news dissemination. A clear understanding of the current media context and its characteristics is undoubtedly of great necessity and significance to media practices such as media operation and management, news gathering and arrangement, and is also extremely crucial for media professionals to improve their professional quality. Therefore, media culture and communication practice in the context of media integration provides an excellent opportunity for our cross-media research, which not only encourages us to explore and research, but also becomes the original driving force for us to publish this series. In August 2007, Ouyang Guozhong, president of Diansheng Communication and Global Activity Network, was interviewed by the editorial board of "Northern Media Research" when talking about the characteristics of the new media era, and made the following overview: The media in the new media era will mainly present the following four characteristics, the "immediacy" of content generation - more and more content generation and dissemination processes are overlapping, the "locality" of content acquisition - people can obtain instant information anywhere and by any means, and the "interactivity" of content dissemination - Recipients of content have more choice over what they receive, and advertising is "targeted" – advertisers can more effectively target their ads to individual target customers. It can 2879264 be said that this is not only the communication characteristic in the era of media integration, but also the media goal in the cross-media era. How to achieve a win-win situation in the media itself, the audience and advertisers is not only a matter that media professionals need to consider, but also a proposition that media academics need to explore and research. As the result of the key construction discipline project of the "211 Project" of Sichuan University, the research scope covered by the "Cross-media Research Series" mainly includes: (1) "cross-media" or "media fusion" object research and process research. For example, the research on content integration and channel integration, capital integration and structure integration, technology integration and production integration, as well as policy regulations and industry barriers encountered in the process of media integration. (2) Research on the impact of "cross-media" or "media integration" on various media practices and corresponding countermeasures of various media practices. For example, the research on news gathering and editing in the cross-media environment, such as the research on the digital transformation of the newspaper industry, etc. (3) The research on the relationship between "transmedia" or "media fusion" and other fields, reflected in the interdisciplinary research between media integration and political science, economics, cultural studies, sociology and psychology. For example, government information communication research in the cross-media communication pattern, media culture research and audience psychology research in the context of media integration. Regardless of the type of research, this series emphasizes the pertinence of the current reality of the media, the summary of the lessons learned from the history of the media, and the guidance and prediction of the future development of the media. The eight monographs to be published in this issue include "Spectacle and Panorama: A New Theory of Media Culture" by Jiang Xiaoli et al., "Decentralization and Integration-Research on the Digital Transformation of the Newspaper Industry", Wang Jilong's "Struggle and Greening: The Origin, Theory and Practice of Environmental Journalism in the West", Liu Xiao's "Reason and Prejudice: A Study of Contemporary Western International Public Opinion Related to China", Hou Honghong's "Subversion and Reconstruction-A Study on the Mainstreaming of Blogs", Zhang Fang's "Unreal and Real: A Study on the Formation of Impressions in Online Interpersonal Communication", Zhang Jie's Change and Return: A Study of Chinese Government Online Information Dissemination and Peng Hong's Emergence and Interaction: Communication Perspectives in Network Society. Each book is the author's exploration and research on cross-media and media integration, and condenses the author's efforts and painstaking efforts to rationally construct media reality, deeply understand the future of media, and spare no effort to think and explore. On the occasion of the publication of this series of books, I sincerely thank all the experts and scholars in the field of journalism and communication in China for their consistent attention and support to our research. Heartfelt thanks to Desheng (Suzhou) Western-style Building Co., Ltd. for its strong support; I would also like to express my heartfelt thanks to Mr. Ren Ming of China Social Sciences Press and all my friends and colleagues who have worked hard for the publication of this series. "The road is long, and I will seek it up and down." Although the above books alone cannot support the framework of "cross-media research", we hope that the publication of this series of books can play a role in the field of media studies and industry, and we are willing to continue to enrich and extend it in the future media research process, so as to contribute our modest efforts to effectively understand and guide media practice. is the order. Nie Shengzhe Jiang Xiaoli, spring 2010(AI翻译)

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