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语文词典语义类别释义的多维研究

冯海霞[著]

词典学 研究

2018-11-01

978-7-5203-3763-2

293

13

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  • 内容简介
  • 书籍目录
  • 作者简介
  • 参考文献
内容简介

本书是一部词典学的理论著作,也是一部指导词典释义编纂实践的工具书。作者首先在汲取语义学、词汇学、比较语言学、词典类型学的等现代语言学理论的基础上,以语义类别为视角,开创性地提出词典释义的原型(范畴)观,同时,基于汉—英典范语文词典或汉一汉典范语文词典释义的比较,通过定量一定性分析,以名词、动词、形容词范畴中的部分典型类别群为研究对象,对其释义作出了多角度的研究,进而对语文词典中原型(范畴〉释义进行了深入的探索。本书是一本难得的聚焦于词典释义方面的专著,理论色彩重、实践价值大。对于语言学、词汇学、词典学、词汇语义学及其他应用语言学等方向的科研人员、研究生、高年级本科生尤其词典编纂者具有较高的参考价值。

This study falls under the realm of lexicography. This book conforms to the trend of modern language system view, and puts forward the archetypal (category) view of dictionary interpretation based on the perspective of semantic categories. At the same time, based on the comparison of the interpretation of some model Chinese and English dictionaries or Chinese and Chinese model language dictionaries, through quantitative and qualitative analysis, some typical category groups in the category of nouns, verbs and adjectives are used as the research objects, and their definitions are analyzed and considered from multiple angles, and then the archetypal (category) interpretation in the language dictionary is explored in practice. The multidimensional study of language dictionary interpretation based on semantic category is a necessary step to realize the interpretation of dictionary system. Nowadays, the study of interpretation from the perspective of semantic categories is mostly at the level of sporadic, case-by-case and unconscious research, and most of them have not been summarized and discussed in a universal and regular manner. Therefore, in theory, this study is conducive to the deepening and sublimation of lexicographical interpretation research; In practice, it can make up for the non-systematic shortcomings of dictionary interpretation, which is conducive to the patterning and systematization of dictionary interpretation. Finally, the comparative study of different dictionaries is conducive to absorbing the experience of interpretation in advanced lexicography, and improving and enhancing the art and skills of Chinese lexicography to better meet the needs of readers. The multidimensional study of semantic category interpretation includes not only the multi-angle and comprehensive systematic analysis and consideration of the current situation of category interpretation, but also the construction of semantic category interpretation mode. (1) The analysis of the current situation of category interpretation is mainly based on the extraction of the semantic characteristics of the interpretation of the same category of terms, the consideration of the interpretation of words, and the consideration of the sequence of interpretation under the concept of "same field and same mode". (2) Semantic category-based interpretation mode, that is, the regular and systematic model existing in the meaning interpretation structure located in the same typical group system, can also be referred to as "prototype (category) interpretation". For the regularity and operability of "semantic category interpretation", we propose that there are often one or two archetypal (basic) meanings in each system. The interpretation of the meaning bits in the category should be divided into two levels, the prototype (base) meaning position is mirrored independent interpretation, and the other non-basic (non-prototype) sense position is based on the basic sense bit for category construction interpretation, that is, the prototype (base) as the default value into the non-prototype (non-basic) meaning bit, and then add/subtract its distinguishing semantic characteristics. The same semantic category and the same level of meaning interpretation pattern should be the same. This is a universal operation mode of semantic category interpretation, and the proposal of this theory has certain practical guiding significance. This book selects noun terms such as "animal", "plant", "sports", "kinship title" and verb terms such as "foot action" and "hand action" for empirical analysis and operation, and of course, finally touches on the interpretation of the slightly controversial "color" entry in the grammar category. We compare the current state of interpretation of mammals related to animals, especially humans, in English and Chinese dictionaries, and find that both the Modern Chinese Dictionary and the Concise Oxford English Dictionary exist to some extent unsystematic. Then, based on the principles of distance iconography and sequential iconosimilarity, we construct interpretation models at different levels in English and Chinese mammal taxa. The Modern Chinese Dictionary contains about 840 plant entries, of which nearly 200 plant entries have derived the linguistic meaning of "plant part" and separated the meaning. Through the comparison of the interpretation of English and Chinese dictionaries, we find a common phenomenon: Chinese dictionaries mostly take the encyclopedic plant meaning as the primary interpretation object, on this basis, give the meaning of "plant part" such as "fruit", while all Western dictionaries first describe the meaning of "plant part" such as "fruit". This mode of interpretation is not only related to the encyclopedic tendency of interpretation, but also to the interpretation mode of two meanings. We believe that Chinese language dictionaries should learn from the interpretation experience of English language dictionaries, so in this study, we propose a new interpretation model for such plant terms. Drawing the essence of "physical property structure" and "word type structure" in the theory of "generative thesaurus", and according to the "prototype (category) theory", we find that whether it is the Chinese language dictionary represented by the Modern Chinese Dictionary and the Modern Chinese Standardized Dictionary, or the English dictionary represented by the Longman Contemporary English Dictionary, there are some deficiencies and shortcomings in the interpretation of sports terms, the separation and arrangement order of terms, the extraction of semantic features of interpretation, and the choice of metalanguage of interpretation words. After comparing and analyzing the interpretation of kinship predicate entries in two different types of dictionaries in China, we found that whether it is the collection of word items, the use of paraphrased word metalanguage, or the interpretation of system categories, we give suggestions. Verb separations are non-self-sufficient relative to nouns. Although the verb synonym is presented on the surface as an isolated action synonym , it is essentially a semantic complex compressed into different roles ( offonym factors ) . The interpretation of this semantic complex in the dictionary is the decompression of different roles (aliasing factors), so the interpretation of ideal verb meanings should not only present a qualitatively normative verb nucleus, but also highlight the distinguishing factors that can reflect the accuracy of the interpretation and reveal the difference between meanings. This study identifies three channels for seeking verb idiosyncrasy factors, and also constructs macroscopic interpretation models suitable for different types of verbs. After comparing the definitions of "go" terms in different Chinese and English dictionaries based on the established prototype (category) interpretation mode, we find that different types of dictionaries should have different interpretations: introverted language dictionaries can take conciseness as the primary principle of interpretation, carry out recursive interpretation, and then achieve systematic interpretation; Export-oriented language dictionaries should thoroughly interpret other meanings in the same mode based on basic meanings, so as to achieve a highly unified systematic interpretation. At the same time, we also selected 450 "hand movements" entries, and through the comparison of Chinese and English dictionary definitions, we found that, like other categories, there are still different degrees of deficiencies in the selection of interpretation factors, the use of paraphrase metalanguage, and the systematization of interpretation. There are always inconsistencies between the interpretation of color terms and their grammatical characteristics. Through analysis, the two dictionaries show great differences in the content of interpretation, in short, the linguistic expression of the interpretation of color terms is different. It is characterized by the fact that the Modern Chinese Dictionary is more linguistic than scientific in the semantic disclosure of color terms, and the proportion of illustrations in pragmatics is much higher than that of Oxford. As far as the part-of-speech annotation of color terms is concerned, we believe that although the Modern Chinese Dictionary (6th Edition) has made great revisions and improvements compared with previous versions, there is still room for revision in the marking of parts of speech and even the separation of meanings in the dictionary. Keywords: language dictionary semantic category multidimensional interpretation(AI翻译)

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