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“互联网+”中国社会救助

邵祥东[著]

互联网络 应用 社会救济 研究 中国

2019-12-01

978-7-5203-5356-4

274

201

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  • 内容简介
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  • 作者简介
  • 参考文献
内容简介

一 “互联网+”社会救助的内涵
自从我国提出“互联网+”战略以来,民政理论政策研究学者和民政部门社会救助业务经办机构积极探索“互联网+”与各种社会救助业务的融合发展。“互联网+”城乡居民最低生活保障救助、“互联网+”自然灾害救助等“互联网+”社会救助的分支领域成为热门研究领域。但是,不少已有研究对“互联网+”社会救助的含义、框架、范畴、趋势等认识和理解有些滞后,甚至存在错误的看法。有观点认为,互联网只是新媒体时代的一种新型网络平台、网络基础设施和技术工具,所谓的“互联网+”社会救助无非就是把这种平台和工具引入线下的社会救助工作中,并不会改变社会救助工作的实质,没有太大的现实意义。也有观点认为,“互联网+”社会救助是政府的噱头,对“互联网+”社会救助线下业务改革和发展方向提出批评,甚至民政系统内部有些工作人员也对“互联网+”社会救助战略存在模糊认识,对“互联网+”社会救助的转型与可持续发展缺乏信心。概言之,这些观点和判断都没有准确地认识和深刻地理解“互联网+”社会救助的内涵。
“互联网+”社会救助的理论与政策含义、研究框架与范围至少有但不限于以下九个方面。
第一,“互联网+”社会救助不仅仅是新媒体时代的一种新型平台、基础设施、工具、渠道,它已经成为社会救助经办机构和从事社会救助事业的民间公益慈善机构的一种常态化工作方式,是一种不可缺少的社会救助行政管理制度、公共服务体系和业务模式。社会救助物品的智能化、善款的在线筹集与支付、移动智能终端型制的变化都已经使互联网技术工具色彩逐渐淡化。社会救助业务工作出现了颠覆性的变化。例如,互联网与医疗机构融合诞生了远程医疗救助,互联网与善款募捐融合产生了众筹模式,互联网与灾害救援融合诞生了无人机灾害救援,移动通信网络与卫星定位系统融合诞生了灾害救助LBS位置服务,射频识别技术(RFID)与灾害救助融合诞生了寻人救助服务。
第二,“互联网+”社会救助业务平台不只是民政部门和社会救助经办机构网站。它也不只限于PC机,还包括移动互联网技术支持的终端。例如,智能手机和技术支撑的微信公众号、客户端、微博;移动互联技术支撑的智能移动终端。2015年,民政部推出的自然灾害社会救助APP系统就是智能手机和客户端软件融合的产物。
第三,“互联网+”社会救助不只是将线下社会救助业务放在互联网上而产生的工作形态。它既有互联网深化发展需要社会救助业务融合牵引的必然趋势,又有社会救助业务发展需要互联网支撑的现实必然。两者相互需求,相互深度融合,不再是简单地嫁接,更不是民政部门和社会救助经办机构需要的时候使用互联网,不需要的时候可以抛弃互联网。如今,人们的日常生活和社会组织的运行已经离不开互联网,尤其是移动互联网以及它支撑的物联网。民政部门和社会救助经办机构不能、不应该也不敢抛弃互联网与社会救助业务的融合。当前,发端于微信朋友圈的谣言给民政部门施加的压力非常大,如果离开了微信公众号、政务微博、政务客户端、官方网站,民政部门辟谣难度会增大。
第四,“互联网+”社会救助不只是各级民政部门和社会救助经办机构的业务,它还是需要减灾部门、地震部门、气象部门、海洋部门、人力资源和社会保障部门、财政部门、国土资源部门、公安部门、卫生和计划生育部门、大数据管理部门、互联网信息管理部门及军队等各部门共同协作才能完成的事业。当前,这些部门也在积极推进互联网与本行业融合发展,民政部门、社会救助经办机构与这些部门的联系无法离开互联网。例如,社会救助经办机构对城乡最低生活保障救助对象的家庭经济核对工作就需要人力资源和社会保障部门、财政部门、公安部门、卫生和计划生育部门以及金融部门的配合,目前的“一门受理、协同办理”网络互联合作机制便由此而生。
第五,“互联网+”社会救助不只是政府独自大包大揽的事儿,更不是各级民政部门和社会救助经办机构一家包揽的业务。它还需要互联网公司、民间公益慈善组织、爱心人士以及其他各类企业的鼎力支持。例如,在芦山地震、鲁甸地震、西藏地震、阜宁风灾等灾害救助中,百度、腾讯、新浪等互联网公司在寻亲救人、众筹募捐、位置服务、信息传播、谣言纠正等方面的反应速度及效率都表现出了超越政府的优势,它们的参与正在逐渐改变政府主导灾害救助的原有模式。在汶川地震救助中,腾讯互联网善款众筹平台发挥了重要作用;在雅安地震救助中,百度在寻亲救人、众筹募捐、位置服务、信息传播、谣言纠正等方面发挥的作用得到了社会公众和政府部门的高度认可。
第六,“互联网+”社会救助改变了捐赠资金才是救助的理念。公益慈善机构通过互联网众筹平台募资救助困难群体,但是,筹集善款并非互联网的唯一作用。微课远程教育救助、微信视频辅导救助、在线就业中介救助、“互联网+”农产品销售的技术帮扶救助等都是“互联网+”社会救助的贡献。灾害救助中的远程医疗救助、寻亲救人、位置服务、心理疏导、精神慰藉、信息传播、谣言纠正等也是“互联网+”社会救助的贡献。
第七,“互联网+”社会救助不只是民政部门、国内公益慈善机构、爱心人士、爱心企业、互联网公司的事业,也是全世界人民的共同事业。如今,我国政府、公益慈善机构和境外一些国家、地区、国际组织建立了社会救助互援合作机制。如果只将目光放在国内的“互联网+”社会救助融合与发展,而忽视社会救助工作的国际化,则是一种落后的观念。境外一些国家、地区、国际组织也参与了我国的社会救助工作。社会救助的国际化发展自然离不开互联网,它有时候不仅是救助资金多少的事儿,更是国家形象和大国责任的体现。
第八,“互联网+”社会救助不需要人们纠结于互联网与传统业务的融合逻辑顺序。有研究强调必须分清“互联网+”社会救助和社会救助“+互联网”的区别,认为正确的逻辑顺序是社会救助“+互联网”,而不是“互联网+”社会救助。认为前者是民政部门将互联网引入社会救助业务中,以提高工作效率和服务质量;后者是互联网行业向社会救助业务领域延伸。我们认为,辨析两者谁在前谁在后的意义不大。国家提出“互联网+”传统业务战略并没有强调指出必须厘清两者的逻辑顺序,更多的是强调需遵循“融合、共享、开放、发展”等指导方针和原则。互联网和社会救助业务融合也应遵从这些方针和原则。“互联网+”社会救助的考察视角是互联网企业向线下延伸,进入社会救助业务领域;社会救助“+互联网”的考察视角是民政部门和社会救助经办机构引入互联网,以提升工作效率、服务水平和业务质量。其实,互联网的贡献远不止这些。近些年来,互联网公司在灾害寻人、善款众筹、远程医疗救助、心理疏导、精神慰藉、远程教育救助、大数据服务、位置服务、信息传播、谣言纠正等方面都发挥了超越政府服务的优势。只要有利于社会救助事业健康发展,没有必要非得厘清两者的逻辑顺序。《社会救助暂行办法》确定了“8+1”社会救助框架,其中的“1”是指社会参与。互联网企业融入社会救助事业是利国利民之举,实在没有必要纠结于“互联网+”社会救助和社会救助“+互联网”中的哪一个是正确的说法。
第九,“互联网+”社会救助不只是一个互联互通的物理网络,也是一种新型的经济社会形态,是一种与人们日常生活和生产密切相关的新型经济社会形态。与信息化不同,它可以被视为一个被人们主观意识忽略的隐性的互联互通结合体,汇聚了金融支付、信息、新闻、娱乐、物流等在线下存在的各种资源。有研究认为,“互联网+”的本质是以互联网为主的移动互联网、大数据技术、云计算等一整套信息技术在经济、社会生活各部门的扩散与应用过程。所以,“互联网+”社会救助的本质是社会救助事业的在线化和数据化。这种偏重于技术性视角得出的“互联网+”社会救助本质的论断是不准确的。
二 “互联网+”社会救助的研究意义
目前,我国的互联网与传统政务的融合发展尚处于起步阶段。互联网和社会救助的融合也是如此,在基础理论研究、政策法规建设和实践工作探索三个方面仍存在很多亟须深入研究的重点问题和难点问题。当前,我国已经构建起了多元化社会救助网络体系,具体救助包括城乡居民最低生活保障救助、“五保”和“三无”特困人员救助、边缘户救助、重度残疾人救助、医疗救助、教育救助、住房救助、自然灾害救助、临时救助、司法救助、就业救助、流浪乞讨人员救助、救急难救助等。这些社会救助类型都与互联网实现了不同程度的融合。例如,互联网与城乡居民最低生活保障救助融合诞生了“一门受理、协同办理”跨部门合作机制;互联网与医疗机构融合产生了远程医疗救助模式;互联网与募集善款融合诞生了互联网众筹平台;互联网与灾害救助融合产生了寻人服务;互联网与贫困人群就业难融合形成了在线就业服务救助。从当前的发展现状来看,“互联网+”城乡居民最低生活保障救助、“互联网+”自然灾害救助、“互联网+”社会参与的融合发展速度相对快一些,效果略微好一些,但是,也依然存在很多问题。例如,“一门受理、协同办理”合作机制是多个部门长期努力才构建起来的互联网协同办公模式,但是,目前全国只有少数省级民政厅官方门户网站开通了此项服务。而且各个协作部门将平台使用范围限于政府内部。这样,最低生活保障救助对象、社会组织和公众就无法通过此平台远程办理相关事宜。再例如,微信朋友圈中的很多谣言(郭美美吃低保等),各级民政部门也知道移动互联网对民意的误导力量很大,可是,在全国31个省级民政厅中开通了微信公众号的只有北京市、浙江省、山东省等少数省份;开通微博政务的省份也只有1/3左右;而上线政务客户端的网站也很少;提供无障碍浏览服务的省份也只有上海市和福建省等少数省份。诸如此类的问题还有很多,这些问题不只是技术、资金、建设进度等方面的问题,还有理论、观念、法规等方面的问题。
如今,互联网与社会救助融合已经不再受民政部门和社会救助经办机构一方意愿控制。通过下面这组数据可以了解互联网与社会救助融合速度必须加快的原因。2016年7月,中国互联网络信息中心发布的《第38次中国互联网络发展状况统计报告》显示,截至2016年6月末,我国网民规模已经达到7.1亿人,手机网民规模达6.56亿人,使用手机上网人群占92.5%。在线政务服务用户规模达到1.76亿,占网民总数的24.8%。其中,通过政府微信公众号获得政务服务的使用率为14.6%,为网民使用最多的在线政务服务方式;通过政务微博获得政务服务的使用率为6.7%;通过政府手机客户端应用以及微信政务办事的使用率均为5.8%。这些数据虽然不是互联网和社会救助融合发展的独有数据,但却对各级民政部门和社会救助经办机构有较大的警示和启发意义。如何处理好新媒体时代的社会救助政务供给和社会多元化需求之间的动态均衡发展是一个必须高度重视且需深入研究的课题。例如,最低生活保障救助信息互联网经济核查系统就存在供给和需求失衡问题,街道最低生活保障科工作人员按照规范的表格填报数据,然后上报区县级民政部门,区县民政部门再上报市民政部门。可是,在回馈流程上却存在管理问题和技术问题,有些地区的区县民政部门用QQ回传截图,这既不规范也不安全。而且,区县民政部门打印出纸质版数据表,街道最低生活保障科工作人员需要到区县民政部门,从那些厚厚的纸质版数据表中逐个筛选哪一个属于本街道事项。这样的业务处理方式和管理机制必然导致工作量加大、效率低下。如果区县民政部门能充分考虑互联网供给方式和基层街道的互联网办公需求意愿,那么工作效率就可以大大提高。
互联网和社会救助融合发展是一个全新的领域,本书按照《社会救助暂行办法》规定的“8+1”框架开展研究,但是并非全面论述互联网与每项社会救助制度融合发展,也不是综合分析所有参与社会救助的政府相关部门之间的互联互通;并非侧重于基础理论研究,而是偏重于民政部门实践工作研究。在研究内容方面,重点探析民政部门、减灾部门和社会救助经办机构互联网政务基础设施建设、“两微一端”、“互联网+”社会参与、“物联网+”自然灾害救助等内容。一方面,深入研究上述尚未被学术界系统探索的问题,考察归纳互联网和社会救助事业融合发展中现存的主要问题、面临的困境和未来趋势,为互联网和社会救助实践融合发展提供可操作性的政策建议。另一方面,希望抛砖引玉,也为更多学术团队开展深入研究提供一些积累。
本书的出版得到了中国社会科学出版社卢小生编审及有关同志的大力支持和帮助。在此一并致以衷心感谢。
本书在编写过程中,参考了国内外学者的有关论著及教材,难以一一标注,敬请谅解并致谢意。本书虽经多次审核、修改和征求意见,但因时间仓促,加之编写人员边学边干,水平有限,错误之处在所难免,敬请批评指正。

I. The connotation of "Internet +" social assistance Since China proposed the "Internet +" strategy, scholars of civil affairs theory and policy research and social assistance business handling agencies of civil affairs departments have actively explored the integration and development of "Internet +" and various social assistance businesses. The subfields of "Internet +" social assistance, such as "Internet +" urban and rural residents' minimum living guarantee assistance, and "Internet +" natural disaster relief, have become hot research fields. However, many existing studies have lagged behind in the understanding, framework, scope and trend of "Internet +" social assistance, and even have erroneous views. Some people believe that the Internet is only a new type of network platform, network infrastructure and technical tools in the new media era, and the so-called "Internet +" social assistance is nothing more than introducing such platforms and tools into offline social assistance work, which will not change the essence of social assistance work and has little practical significance. There are also views that "Internet +" social assistance is a gimmick of the government, criticizing the reform and development direction of "Internet +" social assistance offline business, and even some staff within the civil affairs system have a vague understanding of the "Internet +" social assistance strategy, and lack confidence in the transformation and sustainable development of "Internet +" social assistance. In short, these views and judgments do not accurately recognize and deeply understand the connotation of "Internet +" social assistance. The theoretical and policy implications, research framework and scope of "Internet+" social assistance are at least but not limited to the following nine aspects. First, "Internet +" social assistance is not only a new type of platform, infrastructure, tool and channel in the new media era, it has become a normal working mode of social assistance handling institutions and private public welfare charities engaged in social assistance, and an indispensable social assistance administrative management system, public service system and business model. The intelligence of social assistance items, the online collection and payment of donations, and the changes in the mobile intelligent terminal system have gradually weakened the color of Internet technology tools. There have been disruptive changes in the work of social assistance. For example, the integration of the Internet and medical institutions gave birth to telemedicine assistance, the integration of the Internet and fundraising gave birth to the crowdfunding model, the integration of the Internet and disaster rescue gave birth to UAV disaster rescue, the integration of mobile communication network and satellite positioning system gave birth to disaster rescue LBS location services, and the integration of radio frequency identification technology (RFID) and disaster rescue gave birth to tracing and rescue services. Second, the "Internet +" social assistance business platform is not just the website of civil affairs departments and social assistance handling agencies. It is not limited to PCs, but also includes terminals supported by mobile Internet technology. For example, smart phones and technology-supported WeChat public accounts, clients, and Weibo; Intelligent mobile terminal supported by mobile Internet technology. In 2015, the Ministry of Civil Affairs launched the natural disaster social assistance APP system, which is the product of the integration of smart phones and client software. Third, "Internet +" social assistance is not just a form of work produced by putting offline social assistance business on the Internet. It not only has the inevitable trend that the deepening development of the Internet needs the integration and traction of social assistance business, but also has the reality that the development of social assistance business needs the support of the Internet. The two need each other and deeply integrate each other, no longer simply grafting, let alone civil affairs departments and social assistance agencies to use the Internet when needed, and can abandon the Internet when they do not need it. Nowadays, people's daily life and the operation of social organizations are inseparable from the Internet, especially the mobile Internet and the Internet of Things it supports. Civil affairs departments and social assistance agencies cannot, should not and dare not abandon the integration of the Internet and social assistance business. At present, the rumors originating from WeChat Moments put great pressure on the civil affairs department, and if they leave the WeChat public account, government affairs Weibo, government affairs client, and official website, it will be more difficult for the civil affairs department to refute the rumors. Fourth, "Internet +" social assistance is not only the business of civil affairs departments at all levels and social assistance handling agencies, but also a cause that requires the joint efforts of disaster reduction departments, earthquake departments, meteorological departments, marine departments, human resources and social security departments, financial departments, land and resources departments, public security departments, health and family planning departments, big data management departments, Internet information management departments, and the military. At present, these departments are also actively promoting the integration and development of the Internet and the industry, and the contact between civil affairs departments and social assistance agencies and these departments cannot leave the Internet. For example, the economic verification of the families of urban and rural minimum living security assistance recipients by social assistance agencies requires the cooperation of human resources and social security departments, financial departments, public security departments, health and family planning departments, and financial departments. Fifth, "Internet +" social assistance is not only a matter for the government alone, nor is it a business undertaken by civil affairs departments and social assistance agencies at all levels. It also needs the full support of Internet companies, non-governmental charitable organizations, caring people and other types of enterprises. For example, in disaster relief such as the Lushan earthquake, the Ludian earthquake, the Tibet earthquake, and the Funing typhoon disaster, Internet companies such as Baidu, Tencent, and Sina have shown advantages over the government in response speed and efficiency in searching for relatives and saving people, crowdfunding, location services, information dissemination, and rumor correction, and their participation is gradually changing the original mode of government-led disaster relief. In the Wenchuan earthquake relief, Tencent's Internet crowdfunding platform played an important role; In the Ya'an earthquake relief, Baidu's role in finding relatives and saving people, crowdfunding and fundraising, location services, information dissemination, and rumor correction has been highly recognized by the public and government departments. Sixth, "Internet +" social assistance has changed the concept that donated funds are rescue. Public welfare charities raise funds through Internet crowdfunding platforms to help the needy, but raising funds is not the only role of the Internet. Micro-class distance education assistance, WeChat video tutoring assistance, online employment agency assistance, "Internet +" agricultural product sales technical assistance assistance are all contributions of "Internet +" social assistance. Telemedicine assistance, family search, location services, psychological counseling, spiritual comfort, information dissemination, rumor correction, etc. in disaster relief are also contributions to "Internet +" social assistance. Seventh, "Internet +" social assistance is not only the cause of civil affairs departments, domestic public welfare charities, caring people, caring enterprises, and Internet companies, but also the common cause of people all over the world. Today, the Chinese government, public welfare charities and some countries, regions and international organizations abroad have established social assistance and mutual aid cooperation mechanisms. If we only focus on the integration and development of "Internet +" social assistance in China, and ignore the internationalization of social assistance work, it is a backward concept. Some countries, regions and international organizations abroad have also participated in China's social assistance work. The international development of social assistance is naturally inseparable from the Internet, which is sometimes not only a matter of how much money is rescued, but also the embodiment of the country's image and the responsibility of a big country. Eighth, "Internet +" social assistance does not require people to entangle themselves in the logical sequence of integration of the Internet and traditional business. Some studies emphasize that it is necessary to distinguish the difference between "Internet +" social assistance and social assistance "+ Internet", and believe that the correct logical order is social assistance "+ Internet", not "Internet +" social assistance. It is believed that the former is the introduction of the Internet into social assistance business by civil affairs departments to improve work efficiency and service quality; The latter is the extension of the Internet industry to the field of social assistance business. In our view, it makes little sense to distinguish between the two who is first and who is behind. The state's "Internet +" traditional business strategy does not emphasize the need to clarify the logical order of the two, but more emphasizes the need to follow guidelines and principles such as "integration, sharing, openness and development". The integration of the Internet and social assistance business should also comply with these guidelines and principles. The perspective of "Internet +" social assistance is that Internet enterprises extend offline and enter the social assistance business field; The perspective of social assistance "+ Internet" is that civil affairs departments and social assistance handling agencies introduce the Internet to improve work efficiency, service level and business quality. In fact, the contribution of the Internet is much more than that. In recent years, Internet companies have played an advantage over government services in disaster tracing, crowdfunding, telemedicine assistance, psychological counseling, spiritual comfort, distance education assistance, big data services, location services, information dissemination, and rumor correction. As long as it is conducive to the healthy development of social assistance, there is no need to clarify the logical order of the two. The Interim Measures for Social Assistance define the "8+1" social assistance framework, of which "1" refers to social participation. The integration of Internet enterprises into the social assistance cause is a move that benefits the country and the people, and there is really no need to entangle in which of "Internet +" social assistance and social assistance "+ Internet" is the correct statement. Ninth, "Internet +" social assistance is not only an interconnected physical network, but also a new economic and social form, a new economic and social form closely related to people's daily life and production. Different from informatization, it can be regarded as an implicit interconnection combination ignored by people's subjective consciousness, bringing together various resources such as financial payment, information, news, entertainment, logistics and other offline resources. Some studies believe that the essence of "Internet +" is the diffusion and application process of a complete set of information technologies such as mobile Internet, big data technology, and cloud computing dominated by the Internet in various sectors of economic and social life. Therefore, the essence of "Internet +" social assistance is the online and data-based social assistance undertaking. This assertion about the nature of "Internet +" social assistance from a technical perspective is inaccurate. Second, the research significance of "Internet +" social assistance At present, the integration and development of China's Internet and traditional government affairs is still in its infancy. The same is true of the integration of the Internet and social assistance, and there are still many key and difficult issues that need to be studied in depth in the three aspects of basic theoretical research, policy and regulation construction and practical work exploration. At present, China has built a diversified social assistance network system, including urban and rural residents' minimum living guarantee assistance, "five guarantees" and "three no" special hardship relief, marginal household assistance, severe disabled people, medical assistance, education assistance, housing assistance, natural disaster relief, temporary assistance, judicial assistance, employment assistance, vagrant and beggars rescue, emergency relief, etc. These types of social assistance have all achieved varying degrees of integration with the Internet. For example, the integration of the Internet and the minimum subsistence guarantee assistance for urban and rural residents has given birth to a cross-departmental cooperation mechanism of "one-stop acceptance and coordinated handling"; The integration of the Internet and medical institutions has produced a telemedicine assistance model; The integration of the Internet and fundraising gave birth to an Internet crowdfunding platform; The integration of the Internet and disaster relief has produced tracing services; The integration of the Internet and the employment of poor people has formed an online employment service assistance. From the current development status, the integration of "Internet +" urban and rural residents' minimum living guarantee assistance, "Internet +" natural disaster relief, and "Internet +" social participation is relatively fast and the effect is slightly better, but there are still many problems. For example, the "one-stop, collaborative handling" cooperation mechanism is an Internet collaborative office model built by the long-term efforts of multiple departments, but at present, only a few official portals of provincial civil affairs departments have opened this service. And the various collaboration departments limit the use of the platform to internal government. In this way, the recipients of the minimum livelihood guarantee, social organizations and the public cannot handle relevant matters remotely through this platform. For example, there are many rumors in the WeChat circle of friends (Guo Meimei eating dibao, etc.), and civil affairs departments at all levels also know that the mobile Internet has a great power to mislead public opinion, but among the 31 provincial-level civil affairs departments in the country, only a few provinces such as Beijing, Zhejiang Province, and Shandong Province have opened WeChat public accounts; Only about 1/3 of the provinces have opened Weibo government affairs; There are very few websites that go online with government clients; Only a few provinces offer barrier-free browsing services, such as Shanghai and Fujian Province. There are many such problems, not only in terms of technology, funds, construction progress, etc., but also in theory, concepts, regulations and other aspects. Today, the integration of the Internet and social assistance is no longer controlled by the will of the civil affairs department and the social assistance handling agency. The following set of data shows why the integration of the Internet and social assistance must accelerate. In July 2016, the China Internet Network Information Center released the "38th Statistical Report on Internet Development in China", showing that by the end of June 2016, the size of China's Internet users had reached 710 million, the size of mobile Internet users reached 656 million, and 92.5% of the people used mobile phones to access the Internet. The number of online government service users reached 176 million, accounting for 24.8% of the total number of Internet users. Among them, the utilization rate of government services obtained through the government's WeChat public account was 14.6%, which was the most used online government service method by netizens. The utilization rate of government services through government microblogs was 6.7%; The usage rate of government affairs through government mobile app and WeChat government affairs office was both 5.8%. Although these data are not unique to the integrated development of the Internet and social assistance, they have great warning and enlightenment significance for civil affairs departments at all levels and social assistance handling agencies. How to deal with the dynamic and balanced development between social assistance, government affairs supply and social diversified needs in the new media era is a topic that must be paid great attention to and in-depth research. For example, the Internet economic verification system of the minimum livelihood guarantee assistance information has the problem of imbalance between supply and demand, and the staff of the street minimum livelihood security section fill in the data according to the standardized form, and then report it to the civil affairs department at the district and county level, and the district and county civil affairs department then reports to the civil affairs department. However, there are management problems and technical problems in the feedback process, and the district and county civil affairs departments in some areas use QQ to send back screenshots, which is neither standardized nor safe. Moreover, the district and county civil affairs departments print out the paper version of the data sheet, and the staff of the street minimum living security section need to go to the district and county civil affairs department to check which one belongs to the street one by one from the thick paper data sheet. Such business processing and management mechanisms will inevitably lead to increased workload and low efficiency. If district and county civil affairs departments can fully consider the Internet supply mode and the willingness of grassroots streets to demand Internet offices, then work efficiency can be greatly improved. The integrated development of the Internet and social assistance is a brand-new field, and this book conducts research in accordance with the "8+1" framework stipulated in the Interim Measures for Social Assistance, but it does not comprehensively discuss the integration and development of the Internet and each social assistance system, nor does it comprehensively analyze the interconnection between all relevant government departments involved in social assistance; It does not focus on basic theoretical research, but focuses on the practical work of civil affairs departments. In terms of research content, it focuses on the construction of Internet government infrastructure of civil affairs departments, disaster reduction departments and social assistance agencies, "two micro and one end", "Internet +" social participation, and "Internet of Things +" natural disaster relief. On the one hand, it will conduct in-depth research on the above issues that have not been systematically explored by the academic community, examine and summarize the main problems, dilemmas and future trends in the integrated development of the Internet and social assistance, and provide operable policy suggestions for the integrated development of Internet and social assistance practices. On the other hand, it is hoped that the bricks and stones will also provide some accumulation for more academic teams to carry out in-depth research. The publication of this book has received strong support and assistance from Lu Xiaosheng, editor of China Social Sciences Publishing House, and relevant comrades. I would like to express my sincere thanks. In the process of compiling this book, we have referred to the relevant works and teaching materials of domestic and foreign scholars, and it is difficult to mark them all, please understand and thank you. Although this book has been reviewed, revised and solicited for comments many times, due to the lack of time, coupled with the limited level of the compilers while learning, mistakes are inevitable, please criticize and correct.(AI翻译)

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