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解释学视域下的对话教学

张光陆[著]

教育哲学 解释学 研究

2012-11-01

978-7-5161-1674-6

290

9

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内容简介

教育是什么,它能做什么,又该怎样做?对这些教育最本质的问题,人们试图从不同的视角给出确切的答案,但这些答案如同回答“人是什么”一样扑朔迷离,因为教育研究的对象是活生生的人;而对人的研究,正如爱尔维修所言,人是摆在不同人们眼前的一个模特儿,每一个教育家或教育工作者都可以从不同的立场和视角考察人有关教育的某些方面,谁也不能确定是否确证了教育的全部本质与全部内涵。人是自然存在物与社会存在物的统一,无论是作为自然存在物,还是作为社会存在物,人都是一个未完成的存在。这就意味着人具有与生俱来的生成性本质。而教育的终极关怀与根本宗旨就在于:确立人在教育中的崇高地位,让教育融入人的生命与心灵发育成长的过程,让人行走在自我成长的路上,进而发展为富有个性的理想自我。人的未完成存在与教育价值追求的定在,决定培养人的教育只能是创造性的,决定教育学学科理论、知识不是先在的、现成的、制作的,只能是在教育理论和实践的探索中萌发、发展、建构的。
海德格尔认为,我们每个人都走在路上,而且是走在林中布满荆棘的路上。教育的世界里也有许多路,有通衢大道,有羊肠小道;有在场之路,也有不在场之路。教育与教育研究的魅力恰恰在于此:每条路各行其是,无论你选择什么样的道路,采取什么样的态度,信奉什么样的信念,教育只有走在崎岖的探索路上,徜徉于教育的山水之间,沉湎于教育的画卷之中,你才可以领略教育的殊异风景,领悟隐匿于丰富多彩之中的教育真谛;才有可能把准教育内在因素与外在因素的辩证关系,把握教育教学工作规律的脉搏;才会发展人的自然禀赋与潜藏的善性,促使受教育对象行走在自我成长与发展的路上。
“田庐弥望,海桑苍苍。”三江汇流的宁波,背依赤堇山,面朝大海。独特的地理环境孕育独特的人文精神:在行走中实践,在实践中进取。追溯前人的脚步:七千年前的河姆渡祖先刀耕火种,开创了中华民族新石器时期农耕文明的先河;八百年前的唐代祖先涉江过海,开凿了沟通“黄土文明”与“海洋经济”对接的通道;百年来的中国近代、现代灿如星河的“宁波帮”儒商更是以家乡、中国、世界为起航的港口,创造了一个又一个叱咤风云的商海奇迹。历世缅邈,宁波地域文化尽管不断注入时代的源流活水,其精神也逐渐演变为爱家兴邦的互助精神、张扬个性的开拓精神、锲而不舍的务实精神、信誉至上的诚信精神和兼容并蓄的开放精神,宁波人勇于探索的生命底色永远不变。
宁大人承继这种生命的底色,秉承“实事求是,经世致用”的校训,发扬“兼容并包、自强不息、务实创新、与时偕行”的宁大精神,在众多海内外“宁波帮”和“帮宁波”人士的大量帮助和广泛支持下,不断探索既适应学生长远发展需要,又满足地方发展需求的人才培养模式,使宁波大学成为一所具有鲜明特色的综合性的教学、研究并重的地方大学。作为一所地方综合性大学,历史的传统与现实的需要决定其教育学的发展必须以宁波区域教育为探索的出发点与立足点,其教育学人首先必须成为宁波区域教育田园栖居者。坚持高校为地方社会、经济、文化服务,是宁波大学的办学宗旨,同样也是宁波大学教育学学科建设的重要使命。而实现这个崇高的使命的重要途径就是行走与实践。近十年来,宁波大学教育学科一大批教授、博士紧跟前人的步伐,深入学校、深入中小学课堂,或兼职中小学副校长,或与中小学教师互换角色,不仅在宁波区域教育田园行走,而且勇于从实践中探索教育新理念、实践教育新途径和新方法,努力做到服务地方与学术研究的统一,取得了比较丰硕的教育教学和科学研究成果。为了不断推出富有原创性、继创性、可操作性的教育理论与实践成果,不断深化区域教育研究的力度、广度、深度,经过相关教育学人的认真组织、评审,决定推出“传承与发展:教育科学探索丛书”系列学术专著。这些著述都是宁波大学教育学人多年行走与实践的心血之作。他们或纵观几代天骄的教育历史,挖掘深埋其中的教育意义;或横跨一方厚土的教育田野,实践蕴育表里的教育真谛。
科学研究与学术创新的历史性特征,常常是在我们回顾探索者行走过的道路所产生的生命感动与灵魂震颤中感受到的。这些学者的学术研究起始于教育现实中的问题,承继了宁波教育先贤“行走与实践”的治学品质。行走,能够从多种因素、多个侧面、多个视角审视师与生、教与学等区域教育系统中多种矛盾对立的内容;实践,能够增长学术生命的活力与学术研究的效度与信度。风帆正举,在向“两个文明”建设进军的伟大变革中,在迎接海洋经济发展的历史机遇与挑战中,期待我们的学校,我们的老师,尤其是宁波大学教育学人,责无旁贷地肩负起历史的、时代的、职业的神圣使命,在区域教育中行走并实践,发出有特色、有影响的教育声音。是为序。
聂秋华

What is education, what can it do, and how should it be done? People try to give exact answers to these most essential questions of education from different perspectives, but these answers are as confusing as answering "what is a person", because the object of educational research is a living person; And the study of people, as Elvis said, man is a model in front of different people's eyes, and every educator or educator can examine some aspects of education from different positions and perspectives, and no one can be sure whether the full essence and full connotation of education have been confirmed. Man is the unity of natural existence and social existence, whether as a natural being or as a social being, man is an unfinished existence. This means that man has an innate generative nature. The ultimate care and fundamental purpose of education is to establish people's lofty position in education, integrate education into the process of human life and spiritual development and growth, let people walk on the road of self-growth, and then develop into an ideal self full of personality. The imperfect existence of people and the pursuit of educational value determine that the education that cultivates people can only be creative, and determine that the theory and knowledge of pedagogical disciplines are not pre-existing, ready-made, and produced, but can only germinate, develop and construct in the exploration of educational theory and practice. Heidegger believed that each of us walked on the road, and on a thorny road in the woods. There are also many roads in the world of education, there are thoroughfares, there are sheep's intestine paths; There are ways to be present and there are ways to be absent. The charm of education and educational research lies precisely in this: each road has its own way, no matter what path you choose, what attitude you adopt, what kind of belief you believe, education only on the rugged road of exploration, wandering between the mountains and rivers of education, immersed in the picture of education, you can appreciate the unique scenery of education, understand the true meaning of education hidden in the rich; Only then is it possible to grasp the dialectical relationship between the internal factors and external factors of quasi-education, and grasp the pulse of the law of education and teaching work; Only then will the natural endowments and hidden goodness of people be developed, and the educated objects will be encouraged to walk on the road of self-growth and development. "Tian Lu Miwang, Haisang Cang." Ningbo, where the three rivers converge, is backed by the Chipansy Mountain and faces the sea. The unique geographical environment breeds a unique humanistic spirit: practice in walking, enterprising in practice. Tracing the footsteps of predecessors: 7,000 years ago, Hemudu ancestors slashed and burned, creating a precedent for the Neolithic agricultural civilization of the Chinese nation; Eight hundred years ago, the ancestors of the Tang Dynasty crossed the river and opened a channel to connect the "loess civilization" and the "marine economy"; Over the past hundred years, the modern and modern "Ningbo Gang" Confucian merchants have taken their hometown, China and the world as the port to set sail, creating one business miracle after another. Although the regional culture of Ningbo has been continuously injected into the living water of the times, its spirit has gradually evolved into the spirit of mutual assistance of loving the family and prospering the country, the pioneering spirit of showing individuality, the pragmatic spirit of perseverance, the integrity spirit of credibility and the spirit of inclusiveness, and the background of life of Ningbo people who have the courage to explore will never change. Inheriting this background of life, adhering to the school motto of "seeking truth from facts and applying to the world", carrying forward the spirit of "inclusiveness, self-improvement, pragmatism and innovation, and walking with the times", with the help and extensive support of many "Ningbo Gang" and "Ningbo" people at home and abroad, Ningbo University has constantly explored talent training models that not only meet the long-term development needs of students, but also meet the needs of local development, making Ningbo University a local university with distinctive characteristics and comprehensive teaching and research. As a local comprehensive university, the historical tradition and practical needs determine that the development of its pedagogy must take Ningbo regional education as the starting point and foothold of exploration, and its educators must first become the idyllic residents of Ningbo regional education. Adhering to the service of colleges and universities to local society, economy and culture is the tenet of Ningbo University, and it is also an important mission of the construction of education discipline of Ningbo University. And the important way to achieve this noble mission is to walk and practice. In the past ten years, a large number of professors and doctors of education discipline of Ningbo University have closely followed the pace of their predecessors, going deep into schools, primary and secondary school classrooms, or part-time vice principals of primary and secondary schools, or swapping roles with primary and secondary school teachers, not only walking in the pastoral education in Ningbo region, but also daring to explore new concepts of education, new ways and methods of practical education from practice, and strive to achieve the unity of serving local and academic research, and have achieved relatively fruitful results in education teaching and scientific research. In order to continuously introduce original, creative and operable educational theories and practical achievements, and continuously deepen the intensity, breadth and depth of regional education research, after careful organization and evaluation by relevant educators, it was decided to launch a series of academic monographs "Inheritance and Development: Exploration of Education Science". These works are the painstaking work of many years of walking and practicing by Ningbo University education scholars. They may look at the educational history of generations of Tianjiao and dig into the educational significance buried deep in it; Or across the educational field of a thick soil, practicing the true meaning of education in the surface. The historical character of scientific research and academic innovation is often felt in the touches of life and the tremors of the soul generated by our retrospective of the path traveled by explorers. The academic research of these scholars began from the problems in the reality of education, inheriting the academic quality of "walking and practice" of Ningbo's education ancestors. Walking, able to examine the various contradictions and opposing contents of the regional education system such as teachers and students, teaching and learning from multiple factors, multiple aspects, and multiple perspectives; Practice can increase the vitality of academic life and the validity and reliability of academic research. In the great changes of marching towards the construction of "two civilizations" and in meeting the historical opportunities and challenges of the development of the marine economy, we expect our schools, our teachers, especially the educators of Ningbo University, to shoulder the sacred mission of history, times and profession, walk and practice in regional education, and make a distinctive and influential educational voice. is the order. Nie Qiuhua(AI翻译)

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